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J. Cappelle. 2008; Oxfam. English.

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Agrovoc Terms :

european union (eu); farm gate prices; international supply chain; trade policy.agriculture; cocoa; trade policy; cocoa production; west africa; agriculture and food; cocoa farmer; cocoa market price; cocoa supply chain; sustainable cocoa economy

Abstract :

The cocoa tree is an important source of income for millions of farming families in West Africa, the largest supplier of cocoa. Cocoa is traded through a local and international supply chain, and is marketed as a variety of products at different stages in the chain. This report contributes in various ways to the debate on a sustainable cocoa economy.<br /><br />The cocoa supply chain includes ...

Quelal-Vásconez, Maribel Alexandra, Lerma-García, María Jesús, Pérez-Esteve, Édgar, Arnau-Bonachera, Alberto, Barat, José Manuel, Talens, Pau. Food control, 0956-7135. 2019-05. English.

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Type :

Journal Article

Agrovoc Terms :

models; cocoa beans; near-infrared spectroscopy; discriminant analysis; wavelengths; pls-da; cocoa powder; financial economics; cocoa shell; peeling; least squares; cocoa powder; nir; pls; qualitative analysis; roasting; prediction; codex alimentarius; quantitative analysis; cocoa cake; principal component analysis; chocolate

Abstract :

Cocoa shell must be removed from the cocoa bean before or after the roasting process. In the case of a low efficient peeling process or the intentional addition of cocoa shell to cocoa products (i.e. cocoa powders) to increase the economic benefit, quality of the final product could be unpleasantly affected. In this scenario, the Codex Alimentarius on cocoa and chocolate has established that c ...

Vitola, V., Latvia Univ. of Agriculture, Ciprovica, I., Latvia Univ. of Agriculture. Scientific journal of Latvia University of Agriculture, 2256-0939. jun2016. English.

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Type :

Web site

Agrovoc Terms :

qualite des aliments; peroxyde; letonia; innocuite des produits alimentaires; feve de cacao; heavy metals; oxidative stability; food quality; peroxidos; methode statistique; composicion quimica; confectionery; peroxides; stabilite oxydative; oligoelementos; trace elements; patisserie confiserie; metodos estadisticos; pasteleria-confiteria; latvia; tecnicas analiticas; composition chimique; cocoa beans; calidad de los alimentos; estabilidad oxidativa; inocuidad alimentaria; lettonie; technique analytique; analytical methods; food safety; metales pesados; semilla de cacao; metal lourd; oligo-element; chemical composition; statistical methods

Abstract :

The aim of the study was to evaluate cocoa beans quality produced in Cameroon, Ecuador, Nigeria and Ghana from safety position determining heavy and trace metals concentration and evaluating the oxidative stability of confectionery products prototypes (trials) with analysing cocoa beans. For evaluation of oxidative stability of confectionery products, the main ingredients - butter and cocoa be ...

Dharmaputra, O.S., Sunjaya, Retnowati, I., Ambarwati, S.. Biotropia (Indonesia), 0216-5023. 2000. English.

Type :

Summary

Agrovoc Terms :

stored products pests; fermentacion; cocoa beans; denrees entreposees; fatty acids; feve de cacao; productos almacenados; acidos grasos; plagas de productos almacenados; quality; infestation; cadra cautella; ravageur des denrees entreposees; acide gras; semilla de cacao; fermentation; infestacion; qualite; stored products; calidad

Abstract :

The effects of fermentation on Ephestia cautella population and cocoa beans quality in terms of moisture content, fungal population, the percentage of insect-damaged and mouldy beans, lipid and free fatty acid contents during storage were investigated together with the effects of E. cautella infestation on the quality of stored cocoa beans and weight loss. Fermented and unfermented cocoa beans ...

Belscak-Cvitanovic, Ana, Benkovic, Maja, Komes, Drazenka, Bauman, Ingrid, Horzic, Dunja, Dunmic, Filip, Matijasec, Matea. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 0021-8561. 2010. English.

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Type :

Journal Article

Agrovoc Terms :

phenols; particle size; physical properties; polyphenols; sweeteners; antioxidants; plant extracts; phytochemicals; cocoa powder; antioxidant activity; mixtures; bulk density; dispersibility; acesulfame potassium; sensory properties; beverages; proanthocyanidins; sugars; aspartame; bioactive properties; food composition; flavanols; powdered foods; lipid content; solubility; stevia rebaudiana; cohesion; flavonoids

Abstract :

In the present study the physical properties of powdered cocoa drink mixtures prepared from two cocoa powders with various fat contents and different sweeteners, as well as the bioactive content and sensory properties of cocoa drinks prepared from them, were investigated. Particle size and bulk density of the used sugars and sweeteners, as well as the formulated mixtures, were determined and t ...

Hug, B., Golay, P.A., Giuffrida, F., Dionisi, F., Destaillats, F.. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 0021-8561. 2006. English.

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Journal Article

Agrovoc Terms :

food contamination; amides; cocoa liquors; cocoa hulls; cocoa products; liquid chromatography; gas chromatography; food analysis; fatty acid tryptamides

Abstract :

The determination of the occurrence and level of cocoa shells in cocoa products and chocolate is an important analytical issue. The recent European Union directive on cocoa and chocolate products (2000/36/EC) has not retained the former limit of a maximum amount of 5% of cocoa shells in cocoa nibs (based on fat-free dry matter), previously authorized for the elaboration of cocoa products such ...

Ha, Lam Thi Viet, Vanlerberghe, Lore, Toan, Ha Thanh, Dewettinck, Koen, Messens, Kathy. Food biotechnology, 1532-4249. 2015. English.

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Type :

Journal Article

Agrovoc Terms :

cocoa beans; leaves; spectroscopy; dna; chocolate liquor; sodium dodecyl sulfate; food biotechnology; cocoa powder; analytical kits; cocoa butter; polymerase chain reaction; chocolate

Abstract :

Six methodologies for extracting DNA in cocoa and cocoa-derived products (cocoa leaves, cocoa beans, cocoa powder, cocoa butter, cocoa mass, and dark chocolate) are described. These DNA extraction methods included four commercial kits DNeasy Plant kit, DNeasy Plant kit with polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP), QIAamp DNA Stool kit, Wizard Genomic DNA kit, and two CTAB based methods, CTAB-Proteina ...

Bonvehi, J.S.. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 0021-8561. 2004. English.

Type :

Journal Article

Agrovoc Terms :

food contamination; ochratoxin a; cocoa products; roasting; cocoa powder; chocolate

Abstract :

In this work, the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in 170 samples of cocoa products of different geographical origins was studied. An immunoaffinity column with HPLC separation was developed to quantify low levels of OTA in cocoa bean, cocoa cake, cocoa mass, cocoa nib, cocoa powder, cocoa shell, cocoa butter, chocolate, and chocolate cream with >80% recoveries. The method was validated by per ...

Agus, Baizura Aya Putri, Mohamad, Nurul Nadzirah, Hussain, Norhayati. Journal of food measurement & characterization, 2193-4126. 2018-12. English.

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Type :

Journal Article

Agrovoc Terms :

polysaccharides; databases; cocoa beans; proximate composition; antioxidants; beta-sitosterol; antioxidant activity; cocoa industry; crude fiber; drying; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; roasting; temperature; cholesterol; fermentation; dietary fiber; processing stages; stigmasterol

Abstract :

Composition of cocoa beans depends on origin and cocoa processing such as fermentation, drying and roasting. However, less research has been conducted to analyse the composition of Peninsular Malaysia cocoa bean at different processing stages. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the proximate, phytosterol level, antioxidant content and activity of Peninsular Malaysia unfermented, ...

Jagoret P., Michel-Dounias I., Snoeck D., Todem Ngnogue H., Malézieux E.. Agroforestry Systems. 2012.

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Type :

Journal Article

Agrovoc Terms :

innovation; fertilite du sol; rendement des cultures; foret; agroforesterie; theobroma cacao; prairie; biodiversite; imperata cylindrica; intensification; petite exploitation agricole; cameroun centre. foret galerie; cameroun; savane; foret tropicale

Abstract :

Cocoa cultivation is generally considered to foster deforestation. Contrary to this view, in the forest-savannah interface area in Cameroon, farmers have planted cocoa agroforestry systems on Imperata cylindrica grasslands, a soil-climate zone generally considered unsuitable for cocoa cultivation. We undertook a survey to understand the agricultural and ecological bases of this innovation. Age ...

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