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Written Paper

Review: The Estonian Soil of Year 2019 is fen soil  [2019]

Raimo Kõlli Tõnu Tõnutare

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By the Estonian Soil Sciences Society for the Year 2014 Soils the Leached soils, for 2015 – Limestone rendzinas, for 2016 – Bog soils, for 2017 – Typical podzols, for 2018 – Pseudopodzolic soils, and for 2019 – Fen soils (M) were elected. As the Year Soil of 2019 was not previously introduced in the Journal of Agricultural Science, in the actual overview was necessary to treat their classification, ecological conditions of their forming and functioning, hydro-physical and ecological properties, association of them with other soil species, distribution and conversion their names into WRB system. In the review, the main morphological properties of fen soils and the principles of their dividing into soil species (identified by soil genesis) and varieties (divided on basis of peat decomposition stage) are treated. Besides that, the fen soils' productivity, peculiarities of their paludification processes, distribution in Estonia and the data about their chemical properties are presented. In the overview, as well, the estimations of organic carbon stocks and assessments of annual organic carbon fluxes in peaty soil cover are presented and discussed. In the final part, the problems connected with environmentally sustainable use in agriculture and forestry and protection of fen soils are treated.

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Agraarteadus

ISSN : 2228-4893