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Written Paper

Citrus Disease Situation in Ethiopia: I. A check List of observed diseases II. Brief Accounts and suggested control measures of the most important diseases.  [1979]

Dereje Ashagari(Plant pathologist) Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences [Corporate Author]

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Biotic and non-biotic diseases of citrus are believed to cause heavy losses in fruit yields and qualities in Ethiopia. Up to now, 15 disease problems have been suspected and/or observed at various locations. Although all of the diseases require due attention, more efforts are needed to check the incidences and spreads of tristeza, greening, psorosis, and foot rot and foot rot and brown rot gummosis. These diseases, once established, are either very difficult to eradicate or could annihilate plantations relatively within a short period of time. Although accurate records are lacking, losses in yield and quality to citrus crops due to various diseases are suspected to be high in Ethiopia. The main contributing factors for the high disease incidences which lead to this big losses are believed to be a) the absence of reliable nursery centers within Ethiopia for providing certified or disease free propagative materials with a reasonable price, b) the negligence or lack of knowledge on part of farmers and managers in following appropriate management practices such as choosing proper rootstocks, giving attention to recommended cultural practices, etc., all of which are known to influence disease development and c) the unavailability of sufficient trained manpower and essential facilities for identifying the various causative agents and suggest appropriate control measures. Both biotic and abiotic agents are believed to cause citrus diseases in Ethiopia. The biotic
agents include viruses, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes, The abiotic agents include deficiencies and excesses of mineral nutrients and unfavourable weather conditions. A table showing the list of citrus diseases due to these causative agents as they have been observed at various location is given below. Since the greater portion of the disease inventory, with few exceptions, is from field identification based on symptoms, the list might not be as accurate as desired or far from being complete. This paper, however, is expected first to serve as a preliminary check list on citrus disease until a better one is available and second to give brief descriptive accounts and suggested control measures on the most important citrus diseases. Apparently, as the list indicates, citrus plantations that are located at various locations seem to be affected by complex disease problems. Although allof these disease problems require due attention, more efforts are needed to check the incidences and spreads of tristeza, greening psorosis, and foot rot and brown rot gummosis. These diseases, once established, they are either very difficult to eradicate or could annihilate plantations relatively within a short period of time. An attempt is made to give a short description and suggest control measures for each of these disease.

From the journal

Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences