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The effect of silver nanoparticles on physiological characteristics of some saffron (Crocus sativus L.) ecotypes of South Khorasan under moderate water deficit stress  [2018]

Sabertanha, Batool Fakheri, Baratali Mehdinezhad, Nafiseh Alizade, Zohreh

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Abstract
Introduction The scientific name of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has 85 species of crocus, lily family and has been of the order of asparagus. Drought stress occurs when the transpiration rate of water absorption rate. Drought stress causes reduced photosynthesis, impaired physiological and finally drying and death of the plant. Peroxide belongs to a large family of enzymes that are present at high levels in plants and hydrogen peroxide are involved in the sweep. Silver nanoparticles to other nanoparticles more effective against bacteria and viruses from the show. The nano particles are hydrophilic with special properties and application of the technology. It seems these particles to completely eliminate fungi and bacteria, unlike other antibiotics do not create any resistance in microbes. Silver nano-particles have a diameter of about 100 nm which is surrounding its core silver and silver oxide is derived. This study was to investigate the effect of water stress and silver nanoparticles on physiological characteristics of saffron was done. Materials and methods Experiments in both water and normal on 10 ecotypes of saffron in three levels of control (distilled water), 55 and 110 ppm silver nanoparticles were implemented. The reviews are split plot factorial design randomized complete block with three replications in research farm of Birjand University and the Institute of Biotechnology, University of Zabol was done. Before planting, corms for 90 minutes in
distilled water (control), distilled water containing silver nanoparticles at concentrations of 55 and 110 ppm was treated were planted. For germination of corms, irrigation as coats and heavy (saturated) was performed. After taking leaf samples from all treatments, extract the enzyme to measure enzymes, chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids and proteins were prepared. Data with Version 9.2 software SAS were analyzed. Results and discussion The main effects of treatments ecotype, silver nanoparticles, drought and their interactions for catalase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chlorophyll b and carotenoid were significant at the 1% level. Comparison of interaction effects of ecotype×drought showed that chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b Vkartnvyyd ecotype of Cain, the enzyme phenylalanine enzyme catalase ecotype Arian, guaiacol Drakvtyp orchards and polyphenol oxidase in Birjand ecotype under drought highest average respectively. Protein and enzyme ascorbate ecotype showed the highest average Cain on full irrigation. Compare average of ecotype × silver nanoparticles showed that the highest amount of chlorophyll a in ecotype ecotype of orchards and Cain Cain and enzymes guaiacol treated with distilled water (control), respectively. The highest amount of chlorophyll b and carotenoid in ecotype Cain, protein and polyphenol oxidase ecotype screen, PAL and ascorbate peroxidase and catalase ecotype ecotype screen Arian Silver nanoparticle treatment was 55 ppm. Compare the average effects of combination of drought stress × silver nanoparticles showed the highest amount of chlorophyll b, carotenoid, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and catalase in drought stress treatment was 55 ppm silver nanoparticles. Chlorophyll a and PPO under drought stress had witnessed the highest production Most of guaiacol and ascorbate peroxidase under the control of drought. The greatest amount of protein at a concentration of 55 ppm silver nanoparticles were observed under non-drought. Compare the average interaction of the three ecotypes × Stress × silver nanoparticles showed the greatest Mqdarklrvfyl a ecotype Cain, catalase ecotype Arian, polyphenol oxidase in Birjand ecotype, guaiacol ecotype Nasrabad under drought stress in distilled water (control) was observed. The highest amount of chlorophyll b and carotenoid ecotype ecotype Arian Cain and phenylalanine ammonia at a concentration of 55 ppm silver nanoparticles under drought stress was observed. The highest amount of protein in the full irrigation at a concentration of 110 ppm silver nanoparticles ecotype Cain was observed. The greatest amount of ascorbate peroxidase under drought stress at a concentration of 55 ppm in Gazar and ecotype ecotypes screen under the control of drought. Conclusions Chlorophyll b, carotenoids and phenylalanine ammonialis under the conditions of drought stress under silver nanoparticles with a concentration of 55 ppm showed the highest production in the ecotype of Cape and Aryan Shahr, which indicates high performance of the traits in these conditions compared to the control. Due to the hydrophilic properties of nanoparticles, the particles slowly release water to the pot will help to act well in drought. Wet soils and marshes are not suitable for the growth of saffron, because in such soils saffron boils rapidly rotting, So the excess water leads to rot the onion the nanoparticles with antimicrobial and antifungal properties and their hydrophilic from rot prevents.
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