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Effect of spraying of iron and manganese nano chelated on yield and yield component of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under water deficit stress at different growth stages  [2018]

Zahedi, Hossein Alipour, Akbar

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Abstract
IntroductionBarley is one of the most adapted cereals cultivated in favorable weather conditions, in fertile soils with high water retention potential, as well as in soils with acidic properties of between 7 and 8. This plant is more resistant to wheat than drought and therefore in a climate where water limits the production of cereals, barley can produce the highest yield, and in rainfed conditions, barley performance is higher than wheat and rye. The phenomenon of dryness in Iran is one of the most important factors limiting agricultural production. A large part of the cultivated land is located in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. In these areas, yields are drastically reduced due to lack of water resources. The use of water stress strongly reduces the components of yield and biological functions and grain. The use of nanofertilizers leads to increased nutritional efficiency of nutrients, reducing soil toxicity, minimizing the negative effects of excessive use of fertilizer and reducing the frequency of application of fertilizers. Fertilizer particles can be scaled with membranes Nano-coating that facilitates the slow release of nutrients. Covering with nanoparticles, makes it possible to regulate the release of nutrients from the fertilizer capsule, which causes the fertilizers to release nutrients regularly and prevent their general fixation. Materials and methodsTo evaluate the effect of foliar application of iron and manganese in the form of nanop
articles on yield and yield components of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under drought stress at different growth stages in the plot field experiment with a randomized complete block design with water stress factor in barley varieties of basil in the main plot factor of iron and manganese fertilizers with manure micro nano iron and manganese (as usual) in the sub-plots and three replications 95-94 conducted in Tarbiat Modarres University. Foliar fertilization of iron and manganese nano-silicates (in the usual manner) with the application of manganese nitrogen fertilizer application of 11 levels, including concentration of one per thousand manure of iron nano-chelate, three per thousand manure of iron nano-chelate, one and a half per thousand nanoseconds Manganese chelate three per thousand manganese nanoclat manure, one per thousand manure of nano chelate of iron and one and a half per thousand of nano manure Manganese chelate, one in a thousand manure of nano-chelate of iron and three in a thousand manganese nano-manganese manure, one and a half per thousand manganese nano-manganese manure and three in a thousand manure of iron nano-chelate, three in a thousand manure of iron nano-chelate and three in a thousand manure nano Manganese clath, without spraying (control), pure water dispersion and recommended iron and manganese nano chelate fertilizer, as a substrate and And irrigation regimes at three levels: 1) No stress and irrigation time when the amount of water available for use in the plant was at 50% FC level; 2) Water deficit at irrigation and vegetative stage was performed when the amount of plant water available on the surface 30% FC of the field was in the vegetative stage, and 3) dehydration in the reproductive and irrigation stage was performed when the amount of plant water available at the level of 30% FC in the reproductive stage was the main factor. FindingsThe results showed that application of nano-iron and manganese levels in vegetative and reproductive stages, increased the yield, especially in the vegetative growth stage, while the control foliar application (without spraying) had the lowest yield. The interaction of nano-iron and manganese and different levels of water deficit stress was significant on all measured traits. The results showed that withholding irrigation at reproductive stage, reduced the yield and the use of nanoparticles cause to increase the yield and yield components. Therefore, the harmful effects of water deficit on plants can be reduced by foliar application of nano-iron and manganese micronutrients.
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