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Germination Characteristics and Seed Activity of Enzymes of Different Landraces of Indian Cheese Maker (Withania coagulans) in Response to Sodium Hypochlorite and Pre-chilling  [2018]

Majid Ghanbari Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres-Sanavy Ali Mokhtassi-Bidgoli

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Extended abstract Introduction: Indian Cheese Maker, an herbage plant, belongs to potatoes family and grows in areas such as Pakistan, Afghanistan, India and Iran. Given its medicinal properties, Indian Cheese Maker plays an important role in traditional Iranian medicine. Lack of dormancy is one of the most desirable agronomic characteristics of its seeds, which is necessary to achieve the highest amount of germination, emergence and plant establishment. Seed germination capacity of medicinal herbs is typically low, which is due to the presence of seed dormancy in these plants.Material and Methods: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of disinfection and pre-chilling on germination and enzymatic properties of different Indian cheese maker landraces. The experiment was conducted as a factorial based on a completely randomized design with three replications during 2015-16 at the Laboratory of the Department of Agronomy, Tarbiat Modares University. Two treatments consisting of seeds disinfected at two levels (no application and 30 min with hypochlorite solution 5%), two pre-chilling treatments (no application and 1 week pre-chilling) and four Indian cheese maker landraces (Fanuj, Khash, Saravan and Sarbaz) were the experimental factors. For the purpose of suitable pre-chilling to activate the germination enzymes, the seeds were placed in a coated container, on an aluminum foil with holes in it, without direct contact and close to distilled water at
4 C. 25 seeds were placed in each sterile petri dish with Watten filter paper 42. Five ml of distilled water was added to each petri. After applying the treatments, the petri dishes were covered with parafilm and were placed in a germinator at 25 C in the light for 14 days.Results: The results showed that in the Fanuj, Khash and Saravan landraces, the highest values of final germination percentage, germination rate, mean daily germination and mean time germination were obtained during disinfection of 30 minutes and pre-chilling of one week. However, the Sarbaz landrace showed a reverse trend and indicated the highest values of these traits in non-application of seed disinfection and pre-chilling. In terms of the activity of germination enzymes, the highest values of and amylase (0.74 and 0.59 mol/ml/min) were obtained in the Fanuj landrace with 30-minute disinfection with sodium hypochlorite and one-week pre-chilling.Conclusion: According to the results, the Fenuj, Khash and Saravan landraces of Indian Cheese Maker showed positive reaction to disinfection with sodium hypochlorite for 30 minutes and pre-cooling for one week. The same treatments increased the properties and activity of germination enzymes. The Sarbaz landrace did not react positively to the treatments applied and reacted negatively in terms of the properties and activity of germination enzymes. The reason for this behavior in the Sarbaz landrace could be attributed to lower annual rainfall, as well as higher temperature, which causes the hardening of the seeds cover and the increase in the values of germination inhibiting factors, creating seed dormancy, which allows it to survive hot and dry periods. Generally speaking, the use of sodium hypochlorite and pre-chilling can be recommended to break seed dormancy of most Indian Cheese Maker landraces.Highlights:Investigating the effect of mucilage inside the capsule on the inhibition of Indian cheese makers germinationAssessing the activation pattern of germination enzymes to break dormancy of Indian cheese makers seedsInvestigating the reaction of different Indian cheese maker landraces to dormancy-breaking protocols applied

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Iranian Journal of Seed Research

ISSN : 2383-1480