Growth and Phenological Development of Introduced Wild Rose (Rosa L.) Species in Volgograd Region  [2018]

Semenyutina, A.V. Solomentseva, A.S.

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Studying of growth processes and phonological development is essential in theory and practice of plants growing in the conditions of introduction. The study was carried out in Volgograd region in 2008-2016. The climate of the region is arid and extremely continental. It is described by long hot dry sunny summer, long sunny autumn, the lack of atmospheric precipitation, the extreme winter temperature fluctuations which limit growth and development of plants. Plants (8-17 years of age) of different geographical origin were the objects of the study. Among them were R. rugosa, R. cinnamomea, R. beggeriana, R. acicularis, R. ecae, R. pomifera, R. spinosissima, R. canina. We took not less than 25 plants of each species for the research. It was found that the climatic conditions of Volgograd region are favorable for wild roses from North America, Japan, China and Central Asia. In each stage of seasonal development under new environmental conditions they need the same temperatures for normal development as they had in their homeland. All the studied wild roses species bloom and bear fruits profusely in favorable hydrothermal years. Early blooming (the end of April) of Rosa ecae in Volgograd conditions were observed. Its habitat is the mountains of Central Asia. Rosa beggeriana and Rosa cinnamomea are blooming in early May. Rosa acicularis and Rosa pomifera are tardy flowering (the late May, June). The duration of blooming of the species depends on their geographic
al origin and the weather conditions of the growing season. The most part of wild roses are blooming for27-45 days. Rosa rugosa blooms from the late June until the freezing temperatures. It is an excellent decorative plant for ground landings. It is found that the phenological stages of wild roses are usually associated with the dynamics of regional thermal resources and seasonal variations of average daily air temperature. The habit of wild roses is formed under drought conditions with a good environmental illumination. The studied species were divided into three groups according to their height: I - from 2 to 3 m; II - from 1 to 2 m; III - up to 1 m. Rosa acicularis is in the II group; Rosa cinnamomea, Rosa beggeriana and Rosa pomifera are in the I group. The most low-growing shrubs are Rosa ecae and Rosa rugosa. They reach up to 0.6 - 0.7 m of height at the age of fifteen growing in light chestnut soils. Wild roses grow very rapidly at a young age, especially in irrigated nursery, under groundbreaking drought conditions of soil and air and intensive illumination.

From the journal

Bulletin of Higher Educational Institutions. Lesnoi Zhurnal (Forestry journal)

ISSN : 0536-1036