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Breeding of winter and spring triticales of different usage for the condtions of North Caucasia  [2009]

Kovtunenko, V.Ya. The P.P.Lukyanenko Krasnodar Research and Development Inst. of Agriculture (Russian Federation) [Corporate Author]

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Triticale (TC) studies were tried in 1991-2008 over the central zone of the Krasnodar Territory. Selection nurseries were formed using common methods for self-fertile plants. The breeding process included a donor search over the world collection of TC genofond (specimens from Russia, Mexico, Ukraine, Poland, Czech Republic and Belarus) and wild specimens using of intraspecific (IH) and remout hybridization. The studied samples composed of 1179 and 654 ones of winter and spring TC respectively and of 92 samples of winter rye. It was proved that the all types of crossings were necessary to create new hexaploid TC varieties. IH was considered to be the most effective way; hybrid seed setting varied from 15 to 95%. The breeding process of the most productive and resistant TC varieties (Soyuz, Avangard, Khongor, Proryv, Mudrets, Lider, Valentin 90, Yarilo, Sotnik) and their main properties were described. Phenology and organogenesis, winter resistance, productivity, resistance to the main pathogens and technological estimation for bakery of the varieties were explored and determined. A strong positive correlation (r0.7) was found out between grain productivity of a plant and a tilling capacity, plant weight, spike weight of additional shoots and a medium positive correlation (r=0.3-0.7) was found out between weight of a main stem, weight of a main spike and grain number in it, spike length, spikelet and grain number in them. A main tendency in triticale selecti
on was showed up according the determined correlations to increase grain productivity: increase of grain number in a spike, of a grain share in the total biomass and increase of productive tilling capacity