Written Paper

Flavor and flatulence factors in soybean protein products  [1970]

Rackis, J.J. Honig, D.H. Sessa, D.J. Steggerda, F.R.

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Extracting 99.8% of the oil from full-fat soybean flakes with pentane-hexane removed little, if any, of the beany, bitter, green flavors. Further extraction of defatted flakes with aqueous ethanol solutions and hexane-alcohol azeotropes removed complex mixtures of lipids and most of the flavor. Although some hydroperoxides and volatile carbonyl compounds were formed during the preparation of raw, defatted flakes, no change in odor or flavor occurred. The apparent low level of oxidation that does occur, as measured by thiobarbituric acid assay, contributes little to the original soybean flavor. Gas-producing factors in soybeans reside mainly in the water-soluble, low-molecular-weight carbohydrate fraction. Human and dog experiments indicate that soybean flatulence is caused by anaerobic fermentation of carbohydrates in the ileum and colon, with egestion of high concentrations of CO2 and H2. Phenolic acids-syringic and ferulic-inhibit gas production in vivo and in vitro.

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Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

ISSN : 0021-8561