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Agroecology and the design of climate change-resilient farming systems  [2015]

Altieri, Miguel A. Nicholls, Clara I. Henao, Alejandro Lana, Marcos A.

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摘要
Diverse, severe, and location-specific impacts on agricultural production are anticipated with climate change. The last IPCC report indicates that the rise of CO₂ and associated “greenhouse” gases could lead to a 1.4 to 5.8 °C increase in global surface temperatures, with subsequent consequences on precipitation frequency and amounts. Temperature and water availability remain key factors in determining crop growth and productivity; predicted changes in these factors will lead to reduced crop yields. Climate-induced changes in insect pest, pathogen and weed population dynamics and invasiveness could compound such effects. Undoubtedly, climate- and weather-induced instability will affect levels of and access to food supply, altering social and economic stability and regional competiveness. Adaptation is considered a key factor that will shape the future severity of climate change impacts on food production. Changes that will not radically modify the monoculture nature of dominant agroecosystems may moderate negative impacts temporarily. The biggest and most durable benefits will likely result from more radical agroecological measures that will strengthen the resilience of farmers and rural communities, such as diversification of agroecosytems in the form of polycultures, agroforestry systems, and crop-livestock mixed systems accompanied by organic soil management, water conservation and harvesting, and general enhancement of agrobiodiversity. Traditional far
ming systems are repositories of a wealth of principles and measures that can help modern agricultural systems become more resilient to climatic extremes. Many of these agroecological strategies that reduce vulnerabilities to climate variability include crop diversification, maintaining local genetic diversity, animal integration, soil organic management, water conservation and harvesting, etc. Understanding the agroecological features that underlie the resilience of traditional agroecosystems is an urgent matter, as they can serve as the foundation for the design of adapted agricultural systems. Observations of agricultural performance after extreme climatic events (hurricanes and droughts) in the last two decades have revealed that resiliency to climate disasters is closely linked to farms with increased levels of biodiversity. Field surveys and results reported in the literature suggest that agroecosystems are more resilient when inserted in a complex landscape matrix, featuring adapted local germplasm deployed in diversified cropping systems managed with organic matter rich soils and water conservation-harvesting techniques. The identification of systems that have withstood climatic events recently or in the past and understanding the agroecological features of such systems that allowed them to resist and/or recover from extreme events is of increased urgency, as the derived resiliency principles and practices that underlie successful farms can be disseminated to thousands of farmers via Campesino a Campesino networks to scale up agroecological practices that enhance the resiliency of agroecosystems. The effective diffusion of agroecological technologies will largely determine how well and how fast farmers adapt to climate change.
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其它题目

  • germplasm
  • surveys
  • cropping systems
  • agroforestry
  • farmers
  • crop yield
  • greenhouses
  • pathogens
  • harvesting
  • weeds
  • animals
  • agroecosystems
  • insect pests
  • gases
  • climate change
  • landscapes
  • carbon dioxide
  • rural communities
  • biodiversity
  • food production
  • disasters
  • genetic variation
  • climate
  • water conservation
  • organic soils
  • traditional farming
  • population dynamics
  • soil management
  • hurricanes
  • drought
  • surface temperature
  • farms
  • organic matter
  • food availability

学术期刊

Agronomy for sustainable development

ISSN : 1774-0746

其他信息

语言 : English

类型 : Journal Article

In AGRIS since : 2016

: 35

: 3

Start Page : 869

End Page : 890

出版者 : Springer Paris

所有题名 :

" Agroecology and the design of climate change-resilient farming systems "