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Paper

Written Paper

From:
Open Knowledge Repository, OKR

This report assesses the pharmaceutical sector in India, particularly focusing on four key issues related to the production, procurement, and distribution of drugs in India: a) availability, b) affordability; c) quality, and d) the rational use of drugs. The results of a survey of three states indicate considerable variation across states in the above four areas in both public and priva ...

SUBJECT: informal sector; pharmacy; pharmaceutical services; pharmaceutical manufacturers; physicians

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Paper

Written Paper

From:
Open Knowledge Repository, OKR

Pharmaceuticals are a critical input for the health sector. At the same time, the drug business sustains many individual and corporate livelihoods and produces handsome returns for those involved in the trade. Good governance is critical for the sector to maximize returns for public health and minimize risks for patients from ineffective or contaminated drugs. Given the large financial ...

SUBJECT: pharmacy; health care workers; indicator drugs; central government; service delivery

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Paper

Written Paper

From:
Open Knowledge Repository, OKR

Purchasing Pharmaceuticals

Enemark, Ulrika et al. [2004-09]

The overall aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of Resource Allocation and Purchasing (RAP) arrangements as regards pharmaceuticals in developing countries. The specific objective of this paper is to examine the strategic questions that arise, when pursuing an active purchasing and resource allocation strategy for drugs, as well as the actual practice and experience ...

SUBJECT: basic health; pharmacy; local health centers; hospital care; drug resistance

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Paper

Written Paper

From:
Open Knowledge Repository, OKR

Generic Drug Policies in Latin America

Homedes, Núria et al. [2005-03]

The World Health Organization and pharmaceutical experts have recommended that Generic Drug Policies be implemented to improve the availability of affordable medicines. This document reports on the status of generic drug policies in Latin America. The data presented are based on several sources: a survey conducted in 2003, archival information, and official health and pharmaceutical pol ...

SUBJECT: latin american; pharmacy; public sector; safety; drug policy

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Paper

Written Paper

From:
Open Knowledge Repository, OKR

World Bank Pharmaceuticals

Govindaraj, Ramesh et al. [2000-09]

Pharmaceuticals have a major impact on health, on government and household spending, and on health systems. Despite the fundamental role of pharmaceuticals, there remains a profound gap between the benefit which pharmaceuticals have to offer and the reality that for millions of people -- particularly poor and disadvantaged people -- medicines are unavailable, unaffordable, unsafe or imp ...

SUBJECT: market failures; price comparisons; management capacity; pharmaceutical manufacturers; policy implications

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Paper

Written Paper

From:
Open Knowledge Repository, OKR

This book discusses the wide range of challenges faced by policy makers in the pharmaceutical sector, presents the current know-how in terms of policy measures, and provides specific examples of policy packages that can be used in defined circumstances, even if one assumes a certain degree of political resistance and capacity limits on the side of the implementing agency. This book focu ...

SUBJECT: pharmacy; industrial development; regulatory barriers; service delivery; physicians

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Paper

Written Paper

From:
Open Knowledge Repository, OKR

This publication, which is based on the unique methodology and tools developed for the World Bank Institute/Harvard School of Public Health Flagship Course on Health System Reform and Sustainable Financing, provides a powerful set of resources to help policy makers better navigate the complicated process of reforming pharmaceutical systems. Its problem solving approach complements techni ...

SUBJECT: pharmacy; industrial development; regulatory barriers; service delivery; physicians

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Paper

Written Paper

From:
Open Knowledge Repository, OKR

There is a strong political will in the Western Balkan states to align the region's pharmaceutical legislation and practice with that of the European Union. Accordingly, recent policy changes were aimed at harmonization of policies with other European countries. Several national drug laws were updated or completely re-written in the last several years. More specifically, provisions were ...

SUBJECT: pharmacy; price comparisons; pharmaceutical services; pharmaceutical manufacturers; total sales

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Paper

Written Paper

From:
Open Knowledge Repository, OKR

In large measure, this is due to the relatively low level of public health spending in the country (about 3.6 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008) that underlines the significant gap between the constitutional commitment to a range of medical care services and the actual funding to pay for them. While drugs are supposed to be provided to hospital patients free of charge, an ...

SUBJECT: competitiveness; informed decisions; hospital care; pharmaceutical; cardiovascular diseases

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Paper

Written Paper

From:
Open Knowledge Repository, OKR

In recent years, Europe and Central Asia (ECA) has seen the world's fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The Balkans countries and territories under study - Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, and the UN-administered Kosovo -- have reported over 2,000 HIV/AIDS cases since the beginning of the epidemic in 1985. In ECA, HIV/AIDS disproportionably affects the y ...

SUBJECT: blood transfusions; crime; aids committees; hiv infections; harm reduction

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