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Soil fertility never used to be a major constraint due to the age-old practices of recycling agricultural residues in several ways. However, in these days of inorganic fertilizers and quick returns, the problem of soil management and its related constraints are surfacing. In this context, indigenous practices related to soil and water conservation which can also be termed resourc ...

SUBJECT: farmyard manure; soils; yields; scientists; natural resource management

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is experiencing a time of momentous change. Some countries are in the midst of a profound political, economic, and demographic transition, others are striving to emerge from protracted conflict, yet others are experiencing internal tensions and rising demands for more citizen voice. This period of change and uncertainty presents challe ...

SUBJECT: status of women; labor markets; inequality; education system; gender norms

This book provides a detailed and comprehensive evaluation of water reform and water sector performance from the perspectives of institutional economics and political economy. It integrates institutional theory with resource economics, and set against an exhaustive review of the theoretical and empirical literature, the authors develop an alternative methodology to quantitatively ...

SUBJECT: water need; water resources; development economics; opportunity costs; developed countries

This paper applies a partial equilibrium model to analyze the fiscal revenue implications of the prospective economic partnership agreement between the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the European Union. The authors find that, under standard import price and substitution elasticity assumptions, eliminating tariffs on all imports from the European Union would ...

SUBJECT: regional integration; customs; border protection; average tariff; member countries

The HIV pandemic in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region continues as one of the most devastating health crises ever. The recent regional HIV/AIDS epidemiological synthesis report entitled characterizing the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Middle East and North Africa: Time for strategic action, provides the scientific basis for the policy recommendations detailed here and provi ...

SUBJECT: migrant; virus; risky behavior; levels of condom use; commercial sex work

Uganda pioneered the use of budget support operations known as Poverty Reduction Support Credits (PRSCs) in the World Bank. PRSCs were designed to channel programmatic lending to support policy and institutional reforms in support of a country's Poverty Reduction Strategy, usually presented in the form of a Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). In the case of Uganda the PRSCs ...

SUBJECT: development goals agricultural extension; tertiary education; antipoverty programs; sanitation services; geographical coverage

In the first half of 1999, Kyrgyz authorities agreed with the International Development Association (IDA) that a review of Kyrgyz social expenditures, giving particular emphasis to health and education expenditures, would be valuable. This report presents findings from the resulting review undertaken between October 1999 and June 2000. The review team looked not only at these exp ...

SUBJECT: informal sector; cdf; hospital care; effective use; pay-as-you-go systems

A vigorous economic rebound is under way in East Asia since the second quarter of 2009, following the sharp impact from the financial crisis and the global recession that began in late 2008. As much as the reduction in exports and industrial production across the region in the fourth quarter of 2008 and the first quarter of 2009 was unexpectedly swift and deep, so is the strength o ...

SUBJECT: treasuries; information technology; global markets; current account balance; ipo

This paper summarizesthe analysis of five case studies prepared for the 2013 World Development Report team that illustrate why and how the representative voice and economic rights of urban informal workers should be promoted: (1) the Self-Employed Women‘s Association of India; (2) the National Policy and Law for Street Vendors in India; (3) the Legal Cases for Street and Market Vendors in Durb ...

SUBJECT: productivity; urbanization; working poor; economic rights; living standards

The Anatomy of China's Export Growth

Amiti, Mary et al. [2008-05]

Decomposing China's real export growth, of over 500 percent since 1992, reveals a number of interesting findings. First, China's export structure changed dramatically, with growing export shares in electronics and machinery and a decline in agriculture and apparel. Second, despite the shift into these more sophisticated products, the skill content of China's manufacturing exports ...

SUBJECT: export sectors; customs; international bank; exchange rate movements; price change