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International Finance Corporation. 2015; World Bank Group, Washington, DC. English.

Type :

Working Paper

Agrovoc Terms :

honey; food poisoning; protein; juices; chocolate; food testing; tobacco products; rubber; spices; food requirements; food chain; peanuts; safety hazards; gelatin; wine; food legislation; labelling; potato; oil products; agriculture; caffeine; carbohydrate; foodborne illness; apples; eggs; beer; vegetable juices; flavorings; food supplements; veal; foodstuff; tomatoes; chewing gum; beef; oils and fats; bananas; starches; jams; hazards; lemons; grapes; food security; foods; peppers; oranges; starch; fats; food service industry; food safety systems; safety of food; food customs; potatoes; ice; confectionery; strontium; dairy; food product; safety issues; food packaging; ham; butter; food allergies; food quality characteristics; agrarian policy; hydrocarbon; food; containers; dried milk; hygiene; wines; food producers; hazard; plastics; curing; sugars; harmful chemicals; grains; gluten; agricultural production; food composition; cesium; cafes; citrus fruits; food processors; control laboratories; vitamins; drinking water; refrigeration; lipids; nuts; food quality; food standards; food hygiene; food processing; additives; food supply; sugar; labeling; food for all; cream; meats; food production; infant formula; dates; non-alcoholic beverages; packing; food additives; beverages; starvation; animal food; cheese; bottles; cocoa; frozen food; leguminous vegetables; food science; fruits; listeria; fruit juices; alcoholic beverages; melamine; listeria monocytogenes; cadmium; food labeling; vegetables; food processing equipment; peaches; extracts; food microbiology; food control; food service; vegetable oils; packaging; bacteria; food industry; egg; food needs; allergens; food processing companies; expiration date; food safety; bakery products; pesticide; meat; pesticides; tea; fruit; restaurants; olive oil; cooking; infant foods; safety problem; food regulations; food habits; pesticide residues in food; food law; animal feed; proteins; food products; bottled water

Abstract :

This report presents a comparative analysis of the food legislation requirements of the European Union (EU) and the Customs Union. Its purpose is to guide food business operators and public authorities engaged in reforming national food safety systems in the peculiarities of EU and Customs Union legal requirements and help them evaluate their capabilities in meeting those requirements. ...

Farfan, Gabriela, Genoni, Maria Eugenia, Vakis, Renos. 2015; World Bank, Washington, DC. English.

Type :

Working Paper

Agrovoc Terms :

poverty estimates; food shortage; household; food consumption data; household size; official poverty; inequality; poor; development economics; expenditure data; price information; poverty measurement; national poverty line; impact on poverty; economic growth; food expenditures; access to services; changes in poverty; extreme poverty; agriculture; street foods; per-capita income; social programs; household composition; region; poor population; mean income; poverty status; welfare measure; poverty; nutrition needs; nutrition; regional poverty lines; household surveys; individual poverty; welfare indicator; food security; poverty rates; escape’ poverty; foods; developing countries; geographic region; basic needs method; individual level; income; household level; regions; food share; poverty rate; regional poverty; household head; development research; household consumption; poverty gap; absolute poverty line; absolute terms; food consumption; cost of food; poor individuals; non-food needs; rural; consumption data; household members; poverty index; food energy intake; poverty severity; food; poverty lines; development issues; living standards; nutritional composition; extreme poverty line; non-food items; food basket; consumption distribution; food consumption patterns; welfare measures; inequality reduction; expenditure distribution; poverty profiles; poor populations; access to facilities; reduction in poverty; food_consumption; food baskets; consumption measure; food energy; calorie intake; poverty profile; basic needs; understanding of poverty; poverty reduction; consumption patterns; poverty line; standard errors; consumption level; running water; prepared foods; household income; measures; food item; poverty indexes; national poverty; consumption; food items; household expenditures; poverty indicators; food intake; welfare indicators; poverty indices; school feeding; poor households; household budget; poverty analysis; relative poverty line; rural areas; demographic composition; household survey; housing; poverty poverty; food needs; living standards measurement; meal; calorie content; absolute poverty; policy research; restaurants; household expenditure; poor household; geographic regions

Abstract :

Consumption of food away from home is rapidly growing across the developing world. Surprisingly, the majority of household surveys around the world haven not kept up with its pace and still collect limited information on it. The implications for poverty and inequality measurement are far from clear, and the direction of the impact cannot be established a priori, since consumption of foo ...

World Bank. 2007-11; Washington, DC.

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Agrovoc Terms :

poverty estimates; basic health; protein; caloric requirements; household size; specific poverty line; poverty assessments; inequality; poor; welfare levels; poverty indicator; poverty comparisons; poverty reduction strategies; spices; monitoring poverty; bread; basic consumption; food requirements; food poverty lines; ultra poor; poverty measurement; food expenditures; potable water; decomposable poverty; extreme poverty; household consumption per capita; agriculture; social development; food poverty; wheat; non-food expenditure; supermarket; access to education; household composition; poverty status; welfare measure; nutritional status; total poverty; basic health services; nutrition; urban areas; total poverty line; household surveys; basic consumption needs; per capita consumption; welfare indicator; rural households; adult males; foods; income level; developing countries; absolute consumption poverty; income; household level; consumption behavior; food share; poverty alleviation; food prices; estimates of poverty; public action; household head; development research; household consumption; poverty gap; caloric intake; absolute terms; food consumption; welfare level; credit markets; rural; consistent poverty; human poverty; nutritional norms; poverty gap index; household members; headcount index; expensive calories; food energy intake; poverty severity; purchasing power; poverty lines; living standards; non-food items; welfare measures; expenditure distribution; food poverty line; rural female; food composition; equivalence scales; food energy; poverty map; subjective poverty; access to health care; poverty profile; life expectancy; household level data; basic needs; policy change; head count index; anti-poverty; non-food bundle; poverty reduction; consumption patterns; climatic conditions; poverty line; non-food prices; standard errors; consumption level; measuring welfare; relative prices; per capita ^ consumption; absolute poverty lines; household income; dates; human poverty index; food item; indicators of poverty; measuring poverty; food items; household expenditures; poverty indicators; food expenditure; poor households; consumption expenditures; household budget; poverty analysis; levels of food consumption; agricultural land; rural areas; urban households; household survey; household welfare; adult females; housing; non-food consumption; poverty mapping; food bundle; unemployment; regional differences; anti-poverty policy; food needs; household characteristics; non-food component; regional level; targeting; equivalence scale; absolute poverty; infant mortality; cooking; savings; rural communities; consumption poverty; household expenditure; poor household; poverty line using; poverty measures; rice

Abstract :

From what was historically known as 'Arabia Felix', a land of prosperity and happiness, Yemen has become the most impoverished among the Arab countries. The government of the united Yemen, formed in 1990, has launched so far three five-year economic reform plans with the goal of restoring Yemen's prosperity. Have these efforts succeeded? What policies are needed to further reduce povert ...

D'Souza, Anna, Jolliffe, Dean. 2012-04; World Bank, Washington, DC.

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Agrovoc Terms :

economic shock; food consumption data; household size; access to food; wage premium; national poverty rate; wheat markets; spices; bread; calories per day; income distribution; price changes; rural rehabilitation; national poverty line; access to services; substitute; agriculture; food poverty; wheat; price increase; wheat flour; household composition; safety net; poverty status; commodity price; female household members; nutritional status; nutrition; household surveys; market price; world food programme; milk; per capita consumption; food security; child nutrition; foods; dietary diversity; poor infrastructure; poorer households; income; food quantity; poverty assessment; food prices; wfp; household head; nutrient absorption; food aid; caloric intake; food consumption; rural inequality; ifpri; wage earners; rural; average prices; durable goods; access to markets; stocks; agricultural economics; nutritional consequences; micronutrient deficiencies; household food security; drought; food consumption patterns; household heads; commodity prices; consumption quintiles; food poverty line; grains; inventory; food composition; price increases; calorie intake; subsistence; drinking water; transaction costs; vulnerable groups; condiments; poverty reduction; poverty line; sugar; pulses; calories per person per day; staple foods; price index; price effect; suppliers; volatility; national poverty; vulnerable households; food items; conflict; mountainous country; food intake; food expenditure; poor households; rural poor; agricultural land; rural areas; household survey; food insecurity; mountainous areas; malnutrition; retail prices; household welfare; housing; purchasing; vegetables; food policy; retail; vulnerability assessment; food needs; food price; market access; lamb; targeting; food preferences; food price inflation; calories per person; subsistence farmers; fruit; cooking; central region; economic shocks; rice

Abstract :

This paper investigates the impact of increases in wheat flour prices on household food security using unique nationally-representative data collected in Afghanistan from 2007 to 2008. It uses a new estimator, the Unconditional Quantile Regression estimator, based on influence functions, to examine the marginal effects of price increases at different locations on the distributions of se ...

Ravallion, Martin, Lokshin, Michael. 2003-10; World Bank, Washington, DC.

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Agrovoc Terms :

person heat consumption; utility inconsistencies; welfare levels; poverty comparisons; national population; indifference curve; comparable utility function; service basket; basic consumption; consumption expenditure; age-gender categories; regional baskets; quantity index; utility-consistent poverty; urban poverty; policy analysis; poverty measurement; urban resident; setting poverty lines; utility theory; poverty line one; per-capita income; capability-consistent poverty line; mean income; setting poverty; consumption pattern; household poverty line; urban areas; nutritional requirements; price relatives; derived utility function; basic consumption needs; geographical zones; mean conditional; common utility function; calorific differences; assessing welfare; caloric intakes; demand functions; adult males; non-food baskets; utility poverty; developing countries; service baskets; partial derivatives; welfare comparisons; caloric intake; consumption bundle; utility-consistent poverty line; expenditure function; public goods; scalar adjustment; common reference utility level; geographical zone; average food share; household members; caloric requirement; food- energy requirements; purchasing power; poverty lines; regional poverty line; food basket; food consumption patterns; original poverty lines; poverty profiles; preference analysis; commodity bundle; envelope property; food poverty line; poverty profile utility; nutritional intake; food baskets; convex indifference curves; subjective poverty; expensive items; quantity indices; non-food good; poverty bundles; scalar corrections; true cost-of-living indices; consumer baskets; food-energy-intake method; partial capability consistency; regional costs; relative prices; empirical application; probability distribution; food bundles; utility level; climatic regions; welfare metric; economists; income rises; consumption expenditures; expensive food; rural areas; rank correlation; publicly-provided goods; economic development; price vector; expenditure level; geographic poverty profile; food component; regional differences; capability-consistent poverty; consistent poverty lines; policy research; poverty line using; adult male; cost-of-basic-needs method; utility-maximizing bundle; caloric requirements; official poverty; methodological recommendation; policy implications; internal consistency; price information; rural line; quantity-index matrix; price changes; per capita basis; resulting poverty lines; social development; food poverty; amortization period; male pensioners; services bundle; measured increase; fighting poverty; random variable; food demand function; aggregate measure; nutrition; services zones; individual poverty; rural households; poverty rates; case study; geographic area; climatic zones; inter-regional migration; income level; random differences; individual level; poverty bundle; food share; agreed metric; development research; non-nutritional functionings; urban sector; household poverty; consistent poverty; relative price; food energy intake; non- food goods; expensive calories; welfare consistency; demand behavior; development issues; quantity combinations; rural sector; nutritional composition; methodological choices; nutritional intakes; non-food items; comparing poverty; prices increase; non-income characteristics; utility consistency; food energy; welfare economics; poverty profile; basic needs; non-food bundle; climatic conditions; poverty line; non-food prices; poverty incidence; social protection; regional basket; income poverty; empirical question; climatic differences; non-food components; measuring poverty; non-food goods; food energy requirements; poverty line income; food energy intakes; urban households; social welfare; mean quantity index; food-energy intake; food-energy intake conditional; economic activity; adult females; housing; caloric shortfalls; consumption norms; non-food consumption; urban prices; household characteristics; food-energy requirements; regional poverty measures; geographic setting; age-gender groups; escape poverty; nonlinear regression function; energy-income relationship; poverty baskets; urban poverty line; empirical relationship

Abstract :

Although poverty lines are widely used as deflators for inter-group welfare comparisons, their internal consistency is rarely given close scrutiny. A priori considerations suggest that commonly used methods cannot be relied on to yield poverty lines that are consistent in terms of utility, or for capabilities more generally. The theory of revealed preference offers testable implications ...

World Bank Group. 2016; World Bank, Washington, DC. English.

Type :

Report

Agrovoc Terms :

poverty estimates; inequality; poor; poverty comparisons; health programs; poor farmers; poverty reduction strategies; human development; employment status; poverty measurement; national poverty line; economic growth; access to services; cash transfers; poverty status; smallholder agriculture; food imports; female- headed households; agricultural workers; female-headed households; household surveys; poor families; per capita consumption; child nutrition; climate change; sanitation; agricultural productivity; private transfers; employment incomes; incidence of poverty; poverty headcount rate; agricultural employment; food prices; poverty alleviation; nutrition interventions; poor living; household consumption; rural incomes; poverty gap; food consumption; lack of infrastructure; health insurance; labor market programs; rural; rural area; economic diversification; nutrition outcomes; chronic illness; poverty gap index; employment opportunities; poverty levels; poverty index; poverty severity; counterfactual; poverty lines; rural dwellers; rural women; household food security; extreme poverty line; food basket; rural poverty; inequality reduction; higher inequality; food poverty line; agricultural production; farm incomes; national poverty lines; social impacts; poor countries; anti-poverty; consumption smoothing; food-for-work; food production; measures; food items; food intake; welfare indicators; poor households; consumption expenditures; insurance; war; rural areas; household survey; food insecurity; rural population; poor people; school feeding programs; agricultural incomes; food policy; international poverty lines; poor redistribution; rural growth; female education; culture of “dependency; social assistance; savings; food self-sufficiency; administrative costs; poor household; income growth; poverty measures; household size; employment income; remote areas; income distribution; food requirements; income transfers; poverty threshold; income quintile; food consumption expenditures; transfers; impact on poverty; food expenditures; political economy; extreme poverty; household consumption per capita; food poverty; farm employment; food transfers; social programs; household composition; human development index; poverty; agricultural sector; nutrition; rural regions; economic policies; food security; rural households; poverty rates; poor areas; public spending; income inequality; redistributive policies; income; food share; poverty assessment; public works; asset poverty; household head; credit programs; targeted transfers; poor rural female; correlates of poverty; feeding programs; food goods; poverty dynamics; safety nets; savings accounts; commercial banks; income-generating activities; rural sector; irrigation; drought; death; food commodities; household heads; household food insecurity; social policies; poor rural women; remote regions; rural female; agricultural support; poverty map; poverty profile; rural development; poverty reduction; cattle ownership; safety net programs; poverty line; high inequality; cost effectiveness; poverty incidence; chronic malnutrition; rural poverty reduction; rural labor; social safety nets; household income; rural populations; village development; income poverty; national poverty; poverty headcount rates; social security; asset holdings; conflict; risks; poverty indicators; food expenditure; poverty indices; school feeding; rural poor; indicator of poverty; household budget; disadvantaged groups; poverty analysis; old age; child mortality; human capital; malnutrition; rural employment; farmers; household welfare; equitable access; unemployment; smallholder farmers; poverty poverty; rural residence; food needs; incidence analysis; rural men; targeting; rural divide; absolute poverty; poor rural areas; poverty eradication; rural income; agricultural development; rural residents; food components

Abstract :

Living conditions of Botswana have improved over the past decade and poverty has reduced significantly. This decrease was accompanied by a considerable decline in both depth and severity of poverty, indicating that consumption has improved among the poor. While rural areas led the poverty reduction, the share of the poor living in urban areas has increased. Botswana’s progress toward re ...

Dignan, C., FAO, Rome , Burlingame, B., Kumar, S., Aalbersberg, W.. 2004; Rome (Italy) FAO.

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Type :

Other

Agrovoc Terms :

seguridad alimentaría; foods; valor nutritivo; alimentos; composición quimica; composición aproximada; produit alimentaire; suministro de alimentos; colección de datos; food composition; feeding habits; proximate composition; composition globale; nutritive value; composición de los alimentos; disponibilité alimentaire; collecte de données; valeur nutritive; composition des aliments; comportement alimentaire; food security; data collection; composition chimique; sécurité alimentaire; chemical composition; food supply; hábitos alimentarios

Aksoy, M. Ataman, Isik-Dikmelik, Aylin. 2008-06; World Bank, Washington, DC.

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Agrovoc Terms :

labor markets; poor; farming activities; policy implications; expenditure data; spices; income sources; income distribution; land holdings; groundnut; price changes; food crop production; consumers; economic activities; economic growth; food expenditures; political economy; low income; agriculture; wheat; household composition; food staples; consumer; agricultural sector; food crop; agricultural inputs; urban areas; household surveys; purchases; per capita consumption; income source; food security; rural households; farm activities; agricultural activity; foods; income level; developing countries; agricultural productivity; low incomes; poorer households; income; buyer; cash crops; poor rural household; livestock income; poverty assessment; consumer goods; poverty alleviation; food prices; household head; food aid; research assistance; development research; household consumption; rural incomes; targeted transfers; economic review; lower incomes; food consumption; agricultural activities; marketing; poor groups; rural; income levels; household incomes; per capita incomes; real incomes; food surplus; sources of income; poverty index; maize; income on food; farm productivity; commodities; food buyers; farm activity; latin american; agricultural economics; agricultural wage; development issues; low-income; food producers; rural sector; living standards; food sales; income from cash crops; commodity; food basket; rural poverty; food output; poverty impact; agricultural production; agricultural sectors; subsistence; farm incomes; consumption basket; questionnaire; agricultural product; living standards survey; poor countries; rural development; food aid programs; average incomes; poverty reduction; labor market; staple foods; relative prices; food production; agricultural policies; agricultural wages; household income; cash crop income; dates; rural populations; agricultural productivity growth; empirical question; data sets; labor force; vulnerable households; crop yields; beneficiaries; food items; household expenditures; food intake; welfare monitoring; poor households; rural poor; consumer price index; food crops; urban populations; rural areas; urban households; household survey; small farmers; economic activity; farmers; urban population; food surpluses; household welfare; housing; agricultural incomes; economic development; food policy; agricultural producers; agricultural policy; regional differences; food needs; household characteristics; food price; rural economy; rural community; policy research; higher incidence of poverty; food products; poor household; poverty measures; rice

Abstract :

There is a general consensus that most of the poor in developing countries are net food buyers and food price increases are bad for the poor. This could be expected of urban poor, but it is also often attributed to the rural poor. Recent food price increases have increased the importance of this issue, and the possible policy responses to these price increases. This paper examines the c ...

De Weerdt, Joachim, Beegle, Kathleen, Friedman, Jed, Gibson, John. 2014-01; World Bank, Washington, DC.

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Agrovoc Terms :

agricultural economics; poverty estimates; protein; international food policy research institute; household size; inequality; living standards; access to food; poor; household food security; food consumption expenditure; food losses; human energy; hungry people; income distribution; food composition; global hunger; calorie intake; family members; root crops; hunger; poverty measurement; economic growth; rural settings; political economy; agriculture; food crisis; dietary energy; global food security; poverty reduction; food production; nutrition; household surveys; world food summit; calorie requirements; food items; food intake; food access; consumption expenditures; global poverty; household budget; foods; cassava; rural areas; household survey; dietary diversity; food insecurity; malnutrition; food stocks; food recall; metabolism; diet; calorie availability; income; food quantity; nutrition policies; food distribution; food policy; breastfeeding; household food; nutrition interventions; hungry; household consumption; nutritionists; tubers; calorie content; food consumption; potatoes; targeting; food consumption information; nutrient; snacks; rural; fruit; food policy research; food availability; agricultural development; animal feed; sweet potatoes; rice

Abstract :

There is widespread interest in the number of hungry people in the world and trends in hunger. Current global counts rely on combining each country's total food balance with information on distribution patterns from household consumption expenditure surveys. Recent research has advocated for calculating hunger numbers directly from these same surveys. For either approach, embedded in th ...

World Bank. 2011-06-01; World Bank.

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Agrovoc Terms :

honey; poverty estimates; caloric requirements; social spending; inequality; poor; chocolate; development economics; bread; basic nonfood; calories per day; macroeconomic stability; food consumption expenditures; human development; poverty linkages; price changes; per capita basis; food poverty lines; coping mechanisms; poverty measurement; impact on poverty; economic growth; food expenditures; changes in poverty; decomposable poverty; agriculture; food poverty; social programs; eggs; household composition; welfare measure; total poverty; nutrition; urban areas; oils and fats; total poverty line; milk; poverty rates; farm activities; public spending; humanitarian aid; private transfers; poorer households; income; nonalcoholic beverages; consumer prices; consumption aggregate; food share; poverty assessment; regional vice president; household consumption; poverty gap; food consumption; food transport; rural quintile; non-food needs; consumption needs; rural; food goods; household members; caloric requirement; poverty severity; sensitivity analysis; poverty lines; family benefits; living standards; non-food items; food basket; consumption distribution; food consumption patterns; rural poverty; poverty update; social policies; higher inequality; poverty reduction impact; food poverty line; poverty impact; agricultural production; equivalence scales; alcoholic drinks; consumption basket; national poverty lines; basic needs; fruit vegetables; poverty reduction; sugar; poverty incidence; welfare distribution; absolute poverty lines; household income; non-alcoholic beverages; social protection; food item; cheese; real terms; cocoa; national poverty; vulnerable households; food items; non-food components; social protection spending; household expenditures; non-food goods; food expenditure; poverty indices; consumption expenditures; consumer price index; alcoholic beverages; rural areas; household survey; malnutrition; programmatic poverty assessment; public transfers; vegetables; non-food consumption; unemployment; international poverty lines; food needs; non-food component; targeting; absolute poverty; meat; cereals; tea; social assistance; fruit; savings; average size of pensions; food components; food products; basic foods; poverty measures

Abstract :

This study has two objectives, the first of which is to revise the national poverty lines of Armenia. The Government of Armenia expressed its desire for revised poverty lines that more accurately reflect the current consumption and expenditure patterns of the population. The work was jointly undertaken by the client counterparts and the World Bank. The second objective of this study is t ...

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