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The National Agricultural Library is one of four national libraries of the United States, with locations in Beltsville, Maryland and Washington, D.C. It houses one of the world's largest and most accessible agricultural information collections and serves as the nexus for a national network of state land-grant and U.S. Department of Agriculture field libraries. In fiscal year 2011 (Oct 2010 through Sept 2011) NAL delivered more than 100 million direct customer service transactions.

Journal Article

Article de revue

Neuroinflammation and fatty acids  [2007]

Farooqui, Akhlaq A.; Horrocks, Lloyd A.; Farooqui, Tahira;

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Neuroinflammation is a host defense mechanism associated with neutralization of an insult and restoration of normal structure and function of brain. Neuroinflammation is a hallmark of all major CNS diseases. The main mediators of neuroinflammation are microglial cells. These cells are activated during a CNS injury. Microglial cells initiate a rapid response that involves cell migration, proliferation, release of cytokines/chemokines and trophic and/or toxic effects. Cytokines/chemokines stimulate phospholipases A₂ and cyclooxygenases. This results in breakdown of membrane glycerophospholipids with the release of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Oxidation of AA produces pro-inflammatory prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes. One of the lyso-glycerophospholipids, the other products of reactions catalyzed by phospholipase A₂, is used for the synthesis of pro-inflammatory platelet-activating factor. These pro-inflammatory mediators intensify neuroinflammation. Lipoxin, an oxidized product of AA through 5-lipoxygenase, is involved in the resolution of inflammation and is anti-inflammatory. Docosahexaenoic acid is metabolized to resolvins and neuroprotectins. These lipid mediators inhibit the generation of prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes. Levels of prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes are markedly increased in acute neural trauma and neurodegenerative diseases. Docosahexaenoic acid and its lipid mediators pr
event neuroinflammation by inhibiting transcription factor NFκB, preventing cytokine secretion, blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes, and modulating leukocyte trafficking. Depending on its timing and magnitude in brain tissue, inflammation serves multiple purposes. It is involved in the protection of uninjured neurons and removal of degenerating neuronal debris and also in assisting repair and recovery processes. The dietary ratio of AA to DHA may affect neurodegeneration associated with acute neural trauma and neurodegenerative diseases. The dietary intake of docosahexaenoic acid offers the possibility of counter-balancing the harmful effects of high levels of AA-derived pro-inflammatory lipid mediators.

(Revue

Journal of neurochemistry
ISSN : 0022-3042

Information bibliographique

Langue:
English
Type:
Journal Article
Sur AGRIS depuis:
2013
Volume:
101
Numéro:
3
Page initiale:
577
Page finale:
599
Editeur:
Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tous les titres:
"Neuroinflammation and fatty acids"@eng
Autre:
"Includes references"
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Information bibliographique

Langue:
English
Type:
Journal Article
Sur AGRIS depuis:
2013
Volume:
101
Numéro:
3
Page initiale:
577
Page finale:
599
Editeur:
Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tous les titres:
"Neuroinflammation and fatty acids"@eng
Autre:
"Includes references"