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The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is an autonomous organisation under the Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE), Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. Formerly known as Imperial Council of Agricultural Research, it was established on 16 July 1929 as a registered society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 in pursuance of the report of the Royal Commission on Agriculture. The ICAR has its headquarters at New Delhi.

Journal Article

Journal Article

Crop disease management practices in ancient medieval, and pre-modern India  [2003]

Nene, Y.L. (Asian Agri-History Foundation, Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh (India));

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References to man's efforts to protect crops exist in the literature of different civilizations. Some documentation of Indian civilization has survived, References to plant protection are found in vedas, buddhist literature, kautilya's artha-sastra, krishi-parashara sangam literature, of tamil agnipurana, brhat samhita of varahamihira, surapala's vrikshayurveda, viswavallabha of chakrapani misra and some documents of the medieval and pre-modern period. Abiotic (heat, cold wind, fire, lightning, drought, waterlogging, etc. and biotic stresses (birds, rats, locusts, termities, phanerogamic parasites, etc.) as causes of ailments were described. Surapala (c.1000 AD) was the first to classify disorders as internal and external. for the internal disorders of trees, he borrowed the tridosha principle of ayurveda classified internal causes as the imbalance of humors, vata, kapha, and pitta, and attributed symptoms to each of the three. Plant pathology continued along these lines until the pre-modern period when the Western science provided evidences that fungi, etc. can be the causal agents. It is significant that various methods of treatments adoapted today were conceptualized and practiced centuries ago. Seed treatments prior to sowing to ensure lsuccessful and vigorousgermination were given importance. Balanced nutrition was recognized as a preventive measure for ailments. Dressing of wounds, application of pastes over affected tree surfaces, drenching of soil
with different materials, treating roots before transplanting, fumigation of trees and stored seeds, and spraying and dusting in an elemental way were practiced. The materials used were wostly botanicals, inert substances such as ash and brick-dust, cow dung and other animal wastes, and flours of grain,. There are great opportunities to experiment with these materials. If their utility is proven, we might rediscover many environt friendly sustainable plant protection practices.

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" Crop disease management practices in ancient medieval, and pre-modern India "
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From the journal

Asian Agri-History (India)

ISSN : 0971-7730