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The National Agricultural Library is one of four national libraries of the United States, with locations in Beltsville, Maryland and Washington, D.C. It houses one of the world's largest and most accessible agricultural information collections and serves as the nexus for a national network of state land-grant and U.S. Department of Agriculture field libraries. In fiscal year 2011 (Oct 2010 through Sept 2011) NAL delivered more than 100 million direct customer service transactions.

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Macronutrients and satiety: the effects of a high-protein or high-carbohydrate meal on subjective motivation to eat and food preferences  [1986]

Hill, A.J.; Blundell, J.E.;

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Extract: This study was designed to assess the subjective effects of consuming a high-protein or high-carbohydrate meal. Ratings of hunger, appetite, and fullness and measures of food preference were completed by 13 healthy male and female subjects before, 5 minutes after and 1 hour after two equicaloric meals of natural foods which differed only in their nutritional composition. After the high-protein meal (31 per cent of total energy) subjects expressed significantly stronger feelings of fullness than after the high-carbohydrate meal (52 per cent of total energy). Ratings of desire to eat were also significantly lower after the high-protein meal. Comparisons of the effects upon preference for other foods showed that both meals reduced liking for energy-containing foods (compared with pre-meal preferences). The high-protein meal produced a significantly greater reduction in liking for high-protein than high-carbohydrate foods, but the converse was not true for the carbohydrate meal. Profiles of pre-meal preferences showed that hungry subjects (having missed breakfast) showed a marked preference for high-protein foods. After eating, when satiety was high and hunger low, subjects displayed a relative aversion for high-protein foods and a preference for carbohydrate, regardless of meal composition. These findings support the view that protein is more satiating than carbohydrate and suggest ways in which preferences for protein or carbohydrate foods are relat
ed to subjective feelings of hunger and satiety. It appears that hunger (measured at mid-day) is associated with a liking for high-protein foods, while one major component of satiety is a strong aversion to protein.(author)

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Journal Article
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جميع العناوين:
" Macronutrients and satiety: the effects of a high-protein or high-carbohydrate meal on subjective motivation to eat and food preferences "
مسائل أخرى:
" ill., charts. 26 references "


Nutrition and behavior (USA)

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