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Written Paper

Sugar beet major fungal diseases in Iran (leaf diseases and root rots): Genetics, breeding, agronomy and biotechnology  [2010]

Mahmoudi, S.B.; Ebrahimi-Koulaie, H.; Soltani, J.; Ebrahimian, H.R.; et al.

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In order to manage sugar beet fungal diseases, different fields of the diseases were studied in 27 research projects of a program. Based on preliminary resultes of different projects on importance of the fungal diseases, studies were focused on root rot agents, cercospora leaf spot and powdery mildew. Rhizoctonia, Pythium and Phytophthora were identified as important and prevelant root pathogens. Rhizoctonia was identified as causal agent of sugar beet damping-off, brown rot and dry rot canker in different regions. Interaction of isolate-cultivar was investigated in the pathosystem of Rhizoctonia-sugar beet. Resistant sources of genous Beta were identified, and then resistant lines were developed against the pathogen. In practice, early planting date and regular irrigation increased 10% root yield in root rot stress condition. Cercosporea leaf spot in Khuzestan province in the winter crop was more important than it in Moghan and Khoy in the spring crop, while damage of the disease could be decreased in Khuzestan using resistant cultivars as well as early harvesting time. Cercospra isolates with sugar beet lines had no significant interaction and resistant cultivars showed appropriate resistance level to different geographical isolates of the pathogen. Many resistant pollinators as well as O-types lines of sugar beet to cercospora were developed, then new tolerant hybrids baed on these lines were produced and their yield in stress condition were evaluated.
Powdery mildew of sugar beet had two peack in spring crop, in August and September. The disease was decreased 10% root yield. Tolerant lines of sugar beet to the disease were developed.