Written Paper

[Italian agro-food export from 1995 to 1999 and non-tariff measures. The case of United States, Switzerland and Japan]  [2004]

Nardella, M.

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Several WTO members have raised growing concerns on the proliferation of non-tariff measures (Ntms) since the end of the Uruguay Round. On one hand, Ntms may provide public goods and address market failures. On the other, they may be instruments of a new era of agriculture protectionism. For most Countries the growth of agrifood industries is mainly based on export. Italy is among them. The 45% of the value of Italian agrifood exports is potentially subject to Ntms. It is important to document and evaluate the degree of protection of its target markets to enhance its export performances as well as to support and initiate trade disputes. US, Switzerland and Japan are its major targets outside the EU markets. Among them, structural differences in typology, number and distribution of Ntms exist. In US and Japan, Ntm regulating the quality attributes of agrifood products (tec Ntms) prevails over import licenses, tariff rate quotes, para-tariff measures, antidumping measures (No-tec Ntms). Instead, in Switzerland the apposite is true. For what concerns the distribution of Ntms across products, it appears that the number of Ntms decreases as the value added in the agrifood products increases, supporting the protectionist hypothesis of Baldwin and Bhagwati. From the analysis of the Italian export trends it emerges how the idiosyncratic measures affect negatively the Italian competitiveness

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PAGRI - Politica Agricola Internazionale (Italy)

ISSN : 1722-4365