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The University of the Philippines (UP) is the country’s national university. This premier institution of higher learning was established in 1908 and is now a university system composed of eight constituent universities and one autonomous college spread throughout 17 campuses in the archipelago.

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Journal Article

Journal Article

Financial and social benefits of new forage technologies in Mindanao, Philippines and Tuyen Quang, Vietnam  [2003]

Bosma, R.H.; Roothaert, R.L.; Asis, P.; Saguinhon, J.; et al.

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This study assesses the impact of the Forage for Smallholder Project (FSP) in the Philippines and Vietnam from 1995 to 2002. FSP was convened by Centro International de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), and implemented by national partners in several countries in southeast Asia. Findings showed that in the Philippines, improved forage species increased animal production, improved soil conservation and saved farmers time. Net yearly income per household from animal production increased from $54 to $157 in the farming community at Malitbog, and from $68 to $503 in Cagayan de Oro. The average net income from animal production increased from $0.44 to $1.06 per day of labour in Malitbog, and from $0.40 to $1.34 in Cagayan de Oro. Planting forages in contour lines increased crop production slightly and contributed another $22.50 to yearly income. The reduction in labour requirements allowed households to make $36 per year from other activities. The drop in labour time enabled households with low labour and land availability to acquire animals, and other more lucrative farmers to increase their herd size or extend their crop activities. The introduction of new forages had a gender effect in the Philippines: the involvement of women and children in tasks like herding and cutting diminished, and men were responsible for more livestock tasks. A large increase in the number of animals owned by early adopters resulted in the need for greater labour input. This created labo
ur in rural areas and reduced labour migration by young people. The introduction of cutting and carrying reduced the destruction of crops by grazing animals and affected social life in villages where herding was previously conducted on communal rangelands. In Vietnam, improved forage systems also had a pronounced effect on income levels and welfare. Net income from ruminant-fish production systems increased from $99 to $199 per year. Converted to net income per day of labour spent in the systems, the rates increased from $0.33 to $1.13 for the ruminant system and from $0.80 to $2.33 for the fish system. Saved time also, allowed households to increase their income from other, mainly agricultural activities. This contributed to an additional yearly income of $52 per household. Overall, the financial situation improved due to increased income from investments in tree crops, but the percentage contribution of livestock to total livelihood actually decreased. Forages increased net income per household from pig production, but not the return from labour. Positive gender effects were more significant in Vietnam. Women and children benefited most from the reduction in time spent cutting, carrying and herding. They used this extra time for educational and cultural activities. Poorer farmers who depended more on livestock due to small land area, benefited most from the improved forages. Improved forages allowed them to keep large ruminants-increasing their income from livestock-and intensify their production systems. Other positive effects on rural development included a reduction in the number of farming conflicts, rehabilitation of barren land and reduced use of pesticides. The adoption of new forage was highly dependent upon the livestock dispersal and credit programs in Mindanao, affecting further adoption and scaling-out negatively in one municipality. In Tuyen Quang province, the scaling-out of improved forage technologies was not influenced by livestock distribution schemes. The many advantages and favorable socio-economic conditions associated with the adoption of Panicum maximum systems, enhanced an autonomous farmer-to-farmer process of scaling out. However, the introduction of other species and accessions still needs a structured extension system. Several recommendations were presented and discussed
From the journal
CIAT Working Document (Philippines)

Bibliographic information

Language:
English
Type:
Non-Conventional
In AGRIS since:
2003
Issue:
191
Extent:
92 p.
All titles:
"Financial and social benefits of new forage technologies in Mindanao, Philippines and Tuyen Quang, Vietnam"@eng
Other:
"Summary (En)"
"26 ill.; 36 tables; 10 ref. Annexes. Received May 2003"
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Bibliographic information

Language:
English
Type:
Non-Conventional
In AGRIS since:
2003
Issue:
191
Extent:
92 p.
All titles:
"Financial and social benefits of new forage technologies in Mindanao, Philippines and Tuyen Quang, Vietnam"@eng
Other:
"Summary (En)"
"26 ill.; 36 tables; 10 ref. Annexes. Received May 2003"