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The University of the Philippines (UP) is the country’s national university. This premier institution of higher learning was established in 1908 and is now a university system composed of eight constituent universities and one autonomous college spread throughout 17 campuses in the archipelago.



Parboiling and consumer demand for parboiled rice in South Asia  [1991]

Choudhary, N.H. (Bangladesh Rice Research Inst., Gazipur (Bangladesh). Grain Quality and Nutrition Div.);

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Parboiling is the pregelatinization of the rice grain within its hull. More than 50% of the rice produced in South Asia is parboiled. The process involves soaking the rice to saturation, steaming the grain (without much volume expansion), and drying the steamed rice to around 14% moisture. Parboiling changes the grain properties, makes the grain harder, and gives a higher milling outturn than raw rice. A characteristic color and smell are developed. Parboiling rice takes longer to cook than raw rice, and the cooked rice is harder and fluffier. Parboiled rice retains more proteins, vitamins, and minerals during milling and losses fewer solids than raw rice during cooking. The parboiling process may be accomplished by traditional, improved, or modern methods. The traditional method is used mainly for grain for home consumption, the improved method primarily for trade. Modern processing systems produce milled rice of excellent quality, but are not yet widely used because of high investment costs. In South Asia, consumer demand for parboiled rice quality does not vary much from country to country. Grain size and shape, appearance of milled rice, translucency, amber color of milled rice, percentage broken grains, and cooked rice hardness and fluffiness influence consumer preferences.