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The National Agricultural Library is one of four national libraries of the United States, with locations in Beltsville, Maryland and Washington, D.C. It houses one of the world's largest and most accessible agricultural information collections and serves as the nexus for a national network of state land-grant and U.S. Department of Agriculture field libraries. In fiscal year 2011 (Oct 2010 through Sept 2011) NAL delivered more than 100 million direct customer service transactions.

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Journal Article

Journal Article

Anatomical and morphological characteristics of laser etching depressions for fruit labeling  [2006]

Etxeberria, E.; Miller, W.M.; Achor, D.;

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Fruit etching is an alterative means to label produce. Laser beam-generated pinhole depressions form dot-matrix alphanumerical characters that etch in the required price-look-up information. Pinhole depressions can disrupt the cuticular and epidermal barriers, potentially weakening the natural protection against pathogens. In the present study we describe the anatomical and morphological characteristics of the pinhole depressions in the cuticle/epidermis, and the changes taking place during storage of two fruits: avocado (Persea americana) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). These fruits represent the extremes from a thick, non-edible peel to a thin edible peel. On both tomato and avocado, etching depressions were fairly similar in diameter and depth, averaging 200 micrometer and 25 micrometer, respectively, for energy impact durations of 30 microsecond for tomato and 45 microsecond for avocado. Immediately after etching, the two- to five-cell-deep depressions contained cuticle/wax deposits. Additional cuticle/wax material was deposited in and around the depressions during storage as demonstrated by confocal, fluorescent, and light microscopy. In addition, the cells underlining the etch depression increased phenolic and lignin deposits in their walls, creating a potential barrier against pathogenic organisms.
From the journal
HortTechnology
ISSN : 1063-0198

Bibliographic information

Language:
English
Type:
Journal Article
In AGRIS since:
2013
Volume:
16
Issue:
3
Start Page:
527
End Page:
532
All titles:
"Anatomical and morphological characteristics of laser etching depressions for fruit labeling"@eng
Other:
"Includes references"
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Bibliographic information

Language:
English
Type:
Journal Article
In AGRIS since:
2013
Volume:
16
Issue:
3
Start Page:
527
End Page:
532
All titles:
"Anatomical and morphological characteristics of laser etching depressions for fruit labeling"@eng
Other:
"Includes references"