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The National Agricultural Library is one of four national libraries of the United States, with locations in Beltsville, Maryland and Washington, D.C. It houses one of the world's largest and most accessible agricultural information collections and serves as the nexus for a national network of state land-grant and U.S. Department of Agriculture field libraries. In fiscal year 2011 (Oct 2010 through Sept 2011) NAL delivered more than 100 million direct customer service transactions.

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Journal Article

Journal Article

Interactions between microbial consortia in biofilms: a paradigm shift in rumen microbial ecology and enteric methane mitigation  [2014]

Leng, R. A.;

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Minimising enteric CH4 emissions from ruminants is a current research priority because CH4 contributes to global warming. The most effective mitigation strategy is to adjust the animal’s diet to complement locally available feed resources so that optimal production is gained from a minimum of animals. This essay concentrates on a second strategy – the use of feed additives that are toxic to methanogens or that redirect H2 (and electrons) to inhibit enteric CH4 emissions from individual animals. Much of the published research in this area is contradictory and may be explained when the microbial ecology of the rumen is considered. Rumen microbes mostly exist in organised consortia within biofilms composed of self-secreted extracellular polymeric substances attached to or within feed particles. In these biofilms, individual colonies are positioned to optimise their use of preferred intermediates from an overall process of organic matter fermentation that generates end-products the animal can utilise. Synthesis of CH4 within biofilms prevents a rise in the partial pressure of H2 (pH2) to levels that inhibit bacterial dehydrogenases, and so reduce fermentation rate, feed intake and digestibility. In this context, hypotheses are advanced to explain changes in hydrogen disposal from the biofilms in the rumen resulting from use of anti-methanogenic feed additives as follows. Nitrate acts as an alternative electron sink when it is reduced via NO2- to NH3 and CH4 sy
nthesis is reduced. However, efficiency of CH4 mitigation is always lower than that predicted and decreases as NO3- ingestion increases. Suggested reasons include (1) variable levels of absorption of NO3-or NO2- from the rumen and (2) increases in H2 production. One suggestion is that NO3- reduction may lower pH2 at the surface of biofilms, thereby creating an ecological niche for growth of syntrophic bacteria that oxidise propionate and/or butyrate to acetate with release of H2. Chlorinated hydrocarbons also inhibit CH4 synthesis and increase H2 and formate production by some rumen methanogens. Formate diffuses from the biofilm and is converted to HCO3- and H2 in rumen fluid and is then excreted via the breath. Short-chain nitro-compounds inhibit both CH4 and formate synthesis when added to ruminal fluid but have little or no effect in redirecting H2 to other sinks, so the pH2 within biofilms may increase to levels that support reductive acetogenesis. Biochar or activated charcoal may also alter biofilm activity and reduce net CH4 synthesis; direct electron transfer between microbes within biofilms may also be involved. A final suggestion is that, during their sessile life stage, protozoa interact with biofilm communities and help maintain pH2 in the biofilm, supporting methanogenesis.
From the journal
Animal production science
ISSN : 1836-0939

Bibliographic information

Language:
English
Type:
Journal Article
In AGRIS since:
2014
Volume:
54
Issue:
5
Start Page:
519
End Page:
543
Publisher:
CSIRO Publishing
All titles:
"Interactions between microbial consortia in biofilms: a paradigm shift in rumen microbial ecology and enteric methane mitigation"@eng
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Bibliographic information

Language:
English
Type:
Journal Article
In AGRIS since:
2014
Volume:
54
Issue:
5
Start Page:
519
End Page:
543
Publisher:
CSIRO Publishing
All titles:
"Interactions between microbial consortia in biofilms: a paradigm shift in rumen microbial ecology and enteric methane mitigation"@eng