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The National Agricultural Library is one of four national libraries of the United States, with locations in Beltsville, Maryland and Washington, D.C. It houses one of the world's largest and most accessible agricultural information collections and serves as the nexus for a national network of state land-grant and U.S. Department of Agriculture field libraries. In fiscal year 2011 (Oct 2010 through Sept 2011) NAL delivered more than 100 million direct customer service transactions.

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Journal Article

Journal Article

How climate change impacted the collapse of the Ming dynasty  [2014]

Zheng, Jingyun; Xiao, Lingbo; Fang, Xiuqi; Hao, Zhixin; et al.

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Based on the reconstructed temperatures, precipitation changes, and occurrences of extreme climate events, together with historical records on fiscal deterioration, food crises, and the frequencies of popular unrest, rebellions and wars, we identified three principal ways in which climate change contributed to the collapse in the Ming dynasty. Firstly, cooling, aridification, and desertification during a cold period destroyed the military farm system, which was the main supply system for the provisioning of government troops on the northern frontiers; these impacts increased the military expenditure from 64 % of total government expenditure in 1548–1569 to 76 % in 1570–1589 and thus aggravated the national fiscal crisis that occurred during the late Ming dynasty. Secondly, climate deterioration (e.g., cooling, aridification, and an increase in the frequencies of frost- and drought-related disasters, etc.) led to a 20–50 % reduction in the per capita production of raw grain in most areas of China, which resulted in widespread food crises and exacerbated the vulnerability of social structures during the last several decades of the Ming dynasty. Thirdly, the severe droughts occurring in 1627–1643 were a key trigger to the peasantry uprising. These droughts also played a significant role to promote the peasantry uprising, especially reviving the peasantry troops by recruitment of famine victims when they nearly perished in 1633 and 1638, and severely disruptin
g the food supply for the government troops, resulting in the final defeat of the government troops by the peasantry troops. This study contributes to an understanding of the climate-related mechanisms behind the collapse of the Ming dynasty, and provides a historical case study that enhances our understanding of the nature of interactions between climate change and social vulnerability.
From the journal
Climatic change
ISSN : 0165-0009

Bibliographic information

Language:
English
Type:
Journal Article
In AGRIS since:
2015
Volume:
v. 127
Issue:
2
Start Page:
169
End Page:
182
Publisher:
Springer-Verlag
All titles:
"How climate change impacted the collapse of the Ming dynasty"@eng
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Bibliographic information

Language:
English
Type:
Journal Article
In AGRIS since:
2015
Volume:
v. 127
Issue:
2
Start Page:
169
End Page:
182
Publisher:
Springer-Verlag
All titles:
"How climate change impacted the collapse of the Ming dynasty"@eng