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The National Agricultural Library is one of four national libraries of the United States, with locations in Beltsville, Maryland and Washington, D.C. It houses one of the world's largest and most accessible agricultural information collections and serves as the nexus for a national network of state land-grant and U.S. Department of Agriculture field libraries. In fiscal year 2011 (Oct 2010 through Sept 2011) NAL delivered more than 100 million direct customer service transactions.

Journal Article

Journal Article

effect of calendering on the mechanical properties of paper-based, self-reinforcing composites  [2018]

Hildebrandt, Nils C.; Piltonen, Petteri; Valkama, Jukka-Pekka; Illikainen, Mirja;

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In this study, self-reinforcing composites (SRCs) were produced via the partial dissolution route with a NaOH/urea solvent from paper made of softwood sulphite dissolving and abaca pulp. Solvent welding leads to increased tensile strength due to gluing the fibres together with the dissolved portion of cellulose but does not densify the material completely. The resulting porosity makes it difficult to compare the obtained materials with other composites and gives the potential for optimizing the SRCs. Calendering, however, is a well-known and easy method to reduce the thickness of paper and therefore reduce the porosity, but the influence of calendering on the mechanical properties has not been widely studied for paper or for SRCs at this stage. The change of morphology and mechanical properties was investigated by calendering the untreated paper and the SRCs with nip pressures from 10 up to 200 kN/m and then comparing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, tensile strength and short-crush resistance. The SEM imaging indicated that calendering indeed densifies the paper and the SRCs by increasing the nip pressures, but tensile strength measurements showed that the strength of paper and SRCs increases for low nip pressures but significantly decreases for high nip pressures despite better densification. Furthermore, it was found that the elastic modulus can be increased by calendering, and short-crush resistance is not influenced by calendering at all.

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Bibliographic information

Language:
English
Type:
Journal Article
In AGRIS since:
2018
Volume:
25
Issue:
7
Extent:
4001-4010
Publisher:
Springer Netherlands
All titles:
" effect of calendering on the mechanical properties of paper-based, self-reinforcing composites "

From the journal

Cellulose

ISSN : 0969-0239