Written Paper

Silicified pinus remains from the Miocene of Washington  [1992]

Miller, C.N. (University of Montana, Missoula, MT)

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Silicified leaves, dwarf shoots, pollen cones, and seed cones of Pinus from a Late Miocene chert bed within the Yakima Basalt Formation near Yakima, Washington are interpreted as coming from a single new species, P. foisyi. The needles and dwarf shoots are those of a three-needle pine. The needles contain two to four medial resin canals, a biform hypodermis, and endodermal cells with uniformly thickened walls. The pollen cones are ellipsoidal and about 1 cm long, and many contain bisaccate pollen grains. The seed cones are at least 6 cm long and are slightly asymmetrical. The cone axis has a broad sclerotic outer cortex, and the seed wing extends from a thick parenchymatous base. The scale apex bears a conspicuously swollen projection. The foliage and seed cones are identifiable with the Subgenus Pinus, Section Pinus, Subsection Oocarpae independently of one another, and together indicate a fossil species related to the modern Californian closed cone pines. Pinus foisyi represents one of the earliest occurrences of cone asymmetry associated with this group. However, cone serotiny characteristic of the modern species appears to have evolved after the Late Miocene

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American journal of botany (USA)

ISSN : 0002-9122