Written Paper

Anthocyanins and carotenoids - major pigments of roses  [2001]

Lachman, J. Orsak, M. Pivec, V. Kratochvilova, D. (Ceska Zemedelska Univ., Prague-Suchdol (Czech Republic))

استعراض النص الكامل

The major pigments of roses could be divided into two groups - carotenoids and anthocyanins. For the yellow and orange coloured roses carotenoids are typical. The dominant compounds found are lycopene, rubixathin, taraxaxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. beta-carotene, its epoxides, auroxanthin, and from alpha-carotene derived flavoxanthin and chrysanthemaxanthin were found in all growth stages. Some of the structures were found in a limited number of roses - rosaxanthin and rubixanthin, in some roses retinol was found. For pink, red or purple coloured roses both anthocyanins and carotenoids are typical. The ratio of carotenoids and anthocyanins determines the shade of rose colour. Among anthocyanins, cyanidin glycosides and peonidin glycosides are present. They are frequently copigmented with gallotannin, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, etc. The main flavonoids are isoquercitrin, quercetin and tiliroside. In flowers and hips of the dog-rose (Rosa canina) the number of present compounds is higher. Ascorbic acid levels in hips of the dog-rose are considerably higher than in those of Rosa spp. Ascorbic acid reduces anthocyanins to colourless leucoanthocyanidins and could decrease the stability of anthocyanins. Most represented are tannins and leucoanthocyanidins.