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Comparative productivity of the clover meadow and long-term cereal grasses of different precocity at different ways of crops on sod-podsol soils in the Pre-Urals  [2012]

Akmanaev, Eh.D. Bashkirtsev, D.L. Makarova V.M., Perm State Agricultural Academy (Russian Federation) Holzakov, V.M., Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy (Russian Federation)

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The role of red clover in mixed plantings with grasses is diverse: it improves their nitrogen nutrition, improves forage quality and soil fertility. In the Perm region Timothy is the most widely used cereal component in mixtures with clover. Breeders created new varieties of red clover such as Trio and Kudesnik, which combine ultraearliness, high winter hardiness and yield, enhanced resistance to fungal diseases and cancer, as well as to adverse environmental factors. In 2007, 2008 and 2011 there was account of the yield of first year grasses. The three-year study found that single-species agrophytocenosis of such varieties as one-hay mowing Perm local and two-hay mowing Trio in average form the same yield. Thus, for a total of two mowings Perm local variety formed 8.1 t/ha of dry matter, Trio - 7.9 t/ha (at less significance distance 1.5 t/ha). The studying of mixed and combined sowing methods of clover with cereal grasses showed their equivalence: in the amount of two mowing there was the same yield. But there is a clear tendency in the reduction of the yield of grasses when placing them in different rows. Also there is a tendency in increasing productivity in mixed crops comparing with the net ones. Single-species stands of timothy and orchard grass formed the yield significantly lower than the pure and two species agrophytocenosis of red clover. The maximum gathering of dry matter at the level of 10.9 and 11.0 t/ha were obtained in mixed crops with tim
othy, Perm local variety of clover and Kudesnik respectively. Mixed agrophytocenosis also singled out for Trio variety with timothy. So, at the sod-podzol soils of the Pre Urals one-hay mowing Perm local variety, two-hay mowing Trio and Kudesnik varieties form the same yield - 8-11 t/ha of dry matter. In the first year of their use it is effective to cultivate them in single-species as well as in two-species agrophytocenosis with mixed placement of the components in rows.