Effects of jackfruit lectin on the immune response and antiviral activity: In vitro study  [1998]

Nuanchawee Wetprasit Weena Threesangsri Natapong Klamklai Montri Chulavatnatol (Department of Medical Science, Nonthaburi (Thailand). National Inst. of Health)

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Lectin, jacalin, from jackfruit seeds (Artocarpus integrifolia), has been known to be mitogenic for CD4+ and interacting with lymphocyte cell-surface molecule CD4, a known receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Jackfruit lectin (JFL) from Artocarpus heterophyllus which was similar to jacalin was tested for its biological properties. JFL was found to show an inhibitory activity with cytopathic effect (CPE) towards herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), varicellar-zoster (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Antiviral activity was studied using cell culture treated with JFL under three different conditions: I. before infection (pre-treatment); II. after infection (post-treatment); and III. virus directly to JFL before infection (inactivation assay). The ID50 (50 percent inhibitory dose) values from plaque reduction assay (inactivation) were 2.5, 5 and 10 micro g/ml of JFL for HSV-2, VZV and CMV respectively. ID50 was 35 micro g/ml of JFL for the post-treatment for HSV-2 or CMV. The pre-treatment had an effect only on CMV with ID50 of 15 micro g/ml of JFL. Lymphyocyte proliferation showed a significant increase at the JFL concentrations of 0.5 ng/ml to 50 micro g/ml while the response was reduced at 500 micro g/ml. CD16+/CD56+ cells (NK cells) were mainly lymphocyte subpopulations found to be induced. These data suggest that JFL is mitogenic for NK lymphocyte (CD16+/CD56+ and also active against HSV-2, VZV and CMV.