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Written Paper

Gross anatomy and histology of the mammary gland of one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) under different physiological conditions  [2001]

Kausar, R.; University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Veterinary Anatomy [Corporate Author]


In the present studies, the samples of mammary glands from 24 apparently healthy female one-humped camels (Camelus dromedaries) under different physiological conditions were investigated for their gross and light microscopic anatomy. The gross studies on the mammary gland of female camels revealed that the udder of the camel cow had four quarters with its own teat. The colour of the mammary gland showed brown to black tingeing colour. The shape of the mammary gland was cone-shaped in both immature and mature animals, however, the conformation of teats changed markedly with change in physiological state: in lactating females, the teat turned noticeably round at the tips. The length of teat varied significantly among the dour different groups studied. The circumference and diameter of teat increased from tip to base. The most striking feature observed was the presence of two-streak canals in all four teats of female camels. The streak canal was found longer in camel cows when they were lactating. The number of Furestenberg's rosette ranged from 11.6 to13.6 in the present study. The microscopic studies revealed that two teat canals were separated from each other with the thick layer of connective tissue. The streak canal was lined by stratified squamosus epithelium with keratinization that was partially extremely thin in some parts. The coetaneous layer of teat presents few hair follicles and these were entirely absent at mid and its apical regions. At the ba
se of teat the follicles were associated with sebaceous glands, not with the sweat glands. The apocrine sweat glands were less coiled, which showed a wide acinous element forming the part of excretory duct. Glomus organs (Hoyer-Grosser's organs) occurred in the stratum profundum of the corium as well as the subcutis in the present study. The glomus organs also presented many variations present both in structure and size. These results strongly suggest that udder and teat morphologies may be associated with the low incidence of mastitis in camels.