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Journal Article

Journal article

Investigations on Green Preparation of Heavy Metal Saponin Complexes  [2017]

Abed el Aziz, Maher; Ashour, Aziza; Madbouly, Hewaida; Melad, Al Sadek; et al.

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Green preparation of heavy metal saponin complexes has been successfully optimized by direct combination between crude extract of Olea Europaea and Citrus Aurantium with divalent heavy metals, Pb2+ and Cd2+. The main operating factors affecting preparation process were investigated and evaluated in terms of setting time, heavy metal ion concentration, crude extract concentration, and pH value of the medium. Saponin complexes had been prepared using the optimum concentrations of heavy metal ions (120 ppm) and optimum concentration of crude extract (600 ppm) in the slightly alkaline medium. The presence of saponin in plants was confirmed by chemical tests and UV/Vis analysis. Amount of prepared saponine complexes has the order: (Pb/Olive) > (Cd/Olive) > (Pb/Citrus) > (Cd/Citrus). In this process, saponins was isolated and heavy metals were eliminated by a simple, faster and without a huge amount of solvents. The process itself seems to be green isolation of saponins from plants, green removal of heavy metal from aqueous waste streams or green preparation of heavy metal saponin complexes. The process exhibits several advantages and hence benefits, among of them are shorter setting time, higher volume reduction factor and no chemical or solvents used. Direct combination between heavy metals solution and plant extract solution to prepare saponin complex could be considered three in one process. During preparation of the complex, saponin isolated or extracted by
heavy metals and the heavy metal eliminated or removed by saponin solution.