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The IFAD Research Series has been initiated by the Strategy and Knowledge Department in order to bring together cutting-edge thinking and research on smallholder agriculture, rural development and related themes. As a global organization with an exclusive mandate to promote rural smallholder development, IFAD seeks to present diverse viewpoints from across the development arena in order to stimulate knowledge exchange, innovation, and commitment to investing in rural people.
Wiggins, S. 
This paper is a guide to current debates about agricultural development. It analyses the changes in development approaches and thinking in recent decades and explores today's critical issues in agricultural and rural development policy. With the main focus on Africa, the paper also includes insights from Asia and Latin America
SUBJECT: agriculture; africa; development; asia; latin america
Garbero, A. 
Project Completion Reports (PCRs) are used by development institutions to tell a project’s story – achievements, failures and learning. As such, they should provide evidence of effectiveness in bringing about development. But is this the case? This article uses a descriptive content analysis approach to assess the extent of evidentiary support presented in IFAD end-of-project documentation. It ...
SUBJECT: ifad; development projects; development indicators; analysis
Imai, S.K. et al. 
This study offers empirical evidence on the rural-urban gap in the context of growing inequality in Asia. First, China and India explain the trends in regional inequality given their large populations, signifying their importance as major contributors. Overall, China’s income inequality is characterized by rural-urban disparity, but the inequality within rural and within urban areas has worsen ...
SUBJECT: inequality; income gap; china; economic growth; urban areas
Winters, P. et al. 
This paper investigates the trends and the influencing factors of IFAD’s project disbursement performance over the past 20 years. Based on data from 577 projects in 111 countries, the study finds that disbursement of funds are often delayed and time-consuming. Using econometric analysis, the study assesses the internal and external factors affecting the amount and timeliness of disbursements, ...
SUBJECT: ifad; funding; projects; performance testing; econometric models
Winters, P. et al. 
Cash transfer and agricultural support programmes are both used to improve nutrition outcomes in developing countries. This paper examines previous reviews of the impact of these programmes and compares the evidence between the two. The paper finds that, although there are about the same number of programmes of each type, many more papers have been written about the cash transfer programmes th ...
SUBJECT: nutrition; developing countries; cash flow; analysis
Winters, P. et al. 
This paper challenges the traditional view that portrays income maximization as the main driver of migration and tests whether relative deprivation and social inequality lead to migration in sub-Saharan Africa. Examining data from the Living Standards Measurements Study – Integrated Surveys in Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) from Tanzania, Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria and Uganda, the paper finds that a ho ...
SUBJECT: household income; africa; economic distribution; data; migration
Bosc, P.-M. 
This paper explores the conditions for collective action to generate inclusion when agriculture transforms. The analysis finds that changes related to agricultural transformation have often led to urban migration for those rural and agricultural populations that could not cope with “modernization.” In the coming decades, agricultural transformation in rural areas may lead to more varied respon ...
SUBJECT: agriculture; farming patterns; transformation; urban migration; labour
McCord, A. et al. 
While policy engagement is increasingly considered a key dimension of development cooperation, there have been few attempts by development agencies to systematically monitor and evaluate the impact of their work in this area. In recent years, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) has sought to strengthen its engagement in country-level policy processes, and to develop a ra ...
SUBJECT: evaluation; asia; policies; monitoring
Humphrey, J. 
Current transformations in food consumption and food trade have allowed greatly increased food exports from developing countries and also shifted the composition of exports towards high-value foods that offer better opportunities for smallholder farmers to improve their livelihoods. Transformations in the domestic markets of developing countries are also changing the composition of food consum ...
SUBJECT: food safety; markets; developing countries; exports; food consumption
Suttie, D. et al. 
Despite strong per capita income growth, the structure of sub-Saharan Africa’s economies has not changed markedly in recent decades. In spite of a rapidly growing labour force and urbanizing populations, employment growth in rural areas in general and in non-farm sectors in particular has been slow, and poverty levels in those areas remain relatively higher than in urban areas. So, the key que ...
SUBJECT: africa; economic tranformation; growth; employment; rural areas