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Among several methods of wood shaping, bending is argued to have significant advantages, including its capability to maintain inherent wood strength, creating products of better aesthetics and saving wood material. However, such advantages have not been realised to the full due to the lack of research into bending processes associated with new technology. More specifically, recent times have s ...

SUBJECT: microwave softening technique; radiata pine


Chromium (Cr) is an essential mineral element for humans and animals. Various forms of Cr have been used in farm animals in order to improve growth performance, insulin sensitivity, immune response, carcase traits and to reduce stress responsiveness. However, Cr is normally poorly absorbed and utilised even when supplemented in an organic form, perhaps in part because of the tendency to form l ...


Comparative genomic analysis of M. synoviae strains including temperature-sensitive (ts+) vaccine strain MS-H, non-temperature-sensitive (ts–) vaccine parent strain 86079/7NS and two of the ts– MS-H reisolates, revealed a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which were non-synonymous mutations in essential genes of MS-H. One such non-synonymous mutation causing Gly123 ...

SUBJECT: obg; oric vector; expression vector; gtp binding protein; mycoplasma synoviae


The CO2 concentration [CO2] in the atmosphere is increasing and is predicted to double by the end of the 21st century which is likely to have a profound effect on plant growth and yield, especially for C3 plants. Rising [CO2] has direct effect on photosynthesis (A), thus its potential stimulation drives the plant growth and development. However, these responses varied among species but, little ...


Liverworts are the oldest living examples of early embryophytes and provide a living laboratory to address early morphological, physiological and molecular innovations that allowed them to adapt to the terrestrial environment. Liverworts hold an important position in land plant evolution as the earliest clade to diverge from other embryophytes was the ancestral liverwort. Thus, liverworts are ...

SUBJECT: liverwort; differential gene expression; transcriptome sequencing; marchantia polymorpha


Idiopathic epilepsy is a common disease causing seizures, and is the most common medical neurological disease of dogs. Idiopathic epilepsy must be differentiated from symptomatic epilepsy in which there is an underlying disease process resulting in seizure activity. Brain tumours, malformations of cortical development, inflammatory or infectious disease processes can all cause seizures. The in ...

SUBJECT: epilepsy; canine brain; veterinary science; magnetic resonance spectroscopy


Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two of the commonest aetiological agents of infectious enteritis in humans and animals worldwide. These parasitic protists are usually transmitted through the faecal-oral route, following the ingestion of infective stages (oocysts or cysts). An essential component of the control of these parasitic infections, from a public health perspective, is understanding th ...

SUBJECT: cryptosporidium; restriction endonuclease fingerprinting (ref); giardia; bos taurus; bubalus bubalis


Written Paper

University of Melbourne

Selected publications are presented to illustrate Freney’s research on the development of new techniques for assessing the transfer of gaseous nitrogen from fertilizer and animal excreta to the atmosphere, determining the fate of fertilizer nitrogen in different agricultural systems in Australia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, and the Philippines, establishing the factors controlling ...

SUBJECT: loss mitigation; fertilizer nitrogen; factors controlling loss; environmental effects; nitrogen loss


Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) causes upper respiratory tract disease in chickens worldwide. Despite the widespread use of live attenuated ILTV vaccines, outbreaks of ILTV continue to occur in poultry flocks. New recombinant ILTV vaccines have the potential to improve disease control and also allow for a DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) approach to disease con ...


Over recent years, studies of the molecular biology of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) have been focussed on the 3’ end of the viral genome that contains the genes that encode the structural and accessory proteins. This section of the viral genome is responsible for inducing the protective humoral and cellular immune response in the host, and is also associated with pathogenicity and organ t ...

SUBJECT: phylogenetic tree; vaccine subpopulation; attenuation; recombination; virulence