Turnip mosaic virus co-opts the vacuolar sorting receptor VSR4 to promote viral genome replication in plants by targeting viral replication vesicles to the endosome.
Guanwei Wu | Zhaoxing Jia | Kaida Ding | Hongying Zheng | Yuwen Lu | Lin Lin | Jiejun Peng | Shaofei Rao | Aiming Wang | Jianping Chen | Fei Yan
Accumulated experimental evidence has shown that viruses recruit the host intracellular machinery to establish infection. It has recently been shown that the potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) transits through the late endosome (LE) for viral genome replication, but it is still largely unknown how the viral replication vesicles labelled by the TuMV membrane protein 6K2 target LE. To further understand the underlying mechanism, we studied the involvement of the vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR) family proteins from Arabidopsis in this process. We now report the identification of VSR4 as a new host factor required for TuMV infection. VSR4 interacted specifically with TuMV 6K2 and was required for targeting of 6K2 to enlarged LE. Following overexpression of VSR4 or its recycling-defective mutant that accumulates in the early endosome (EE), 6K2 did not employ the conventional VSR-mediated EE to LE pathway, but targeted enlarged LE directly from cis-Golgi and viral replication was enhanced. In addition, VSR4 can be N-glycosylated and this is required for its stability and for monitoring 6K2 trafficking to enlarged LE. A non-glycosylated VSR4 mutant enhanced the dissociation of 6K2 from cis-Golgi, leading to the formation of punctate bodies that targeted enlarged LE and to more robust viral replication than with glycosylated VSR4. Finally, TuMV hijacks N-glycosylated VSR4 and protects VSR4 from degradation via the autophagy pathway to assist infection. Taken together, our results have identified a host factor VSR4 required for viral replication vesicles to target endosomes for optimal viral infection and shed new light on the role of N-glycosylation of a host factor in regulating viral infection.Show more [+] Less [-]