Organismal complexity, cell differentiation and gene expression: human over mouse
Vinogradov, Alexander E. | Anatskaya, Olga V.
We present a molecular and cellular phenomenon underlying the intriguing increase in phenotypic organizational complexity. For the same set of human-mouse orthologous genes (11 534 gene pairs) and homologous tissues (32 tissue pairs), human shows a greater fraction of tissue-specific genes and a greater ratio of the total expression of tissue-specific genes to housekeeping genes in each studied tissue, which suggests a generally higher level of evolutionary cell differentiation (specialization). This phenomenon is spectacularly more pronounced in those human tissues that are more directly involved in the increase of complexity, longevity and body size (i.e. it is reflected on the organismal level as well). Genes with a change in expression breadth show a greater human-mouse divergence of promoter regions and encoded proteins (i.e. the functional genomics data are supported by the structural analysis). Human also shows the higher expression of translation machinery. The upstream untranslated regions (5'UTRs) of human mRNAs are longer than mouse 5'UTRs (even after correction for the difference in genome sizes) and contain more uAUG codons, which suggest a more complex regulation at the translational level in human cells (and agrees well with the augmented cell specialization).Show more [+] Less [-]