Optimisation of the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitrated derivatives from diesel particulate matter using microwave-assisted extraction
Portet-Koltalo, F. | Oukebdane, K. | Dionnet, F. | Desbène, P. L.
Pressurised microwave-assisted extraction was used to extract a complex mixture containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs and heavy n-alkanes from a particularly refractory carbonaceous material resulting from the combustion in a diesel engine. A second-order central composite design was used to determine the optimal conditions of extraction in terms of time, temperature, volume and nature of extracting solvent from spiked diesel soots. To begin, methylene chloride, tetrahydrofuran and chloroform were tested for extracting the spiked diesel particulates; however, the nature of these solvents was not really an influential factor. Volume was the most influential factor and was kept at a medium level to enhance the extraction of heavy PAHs without introducing an important dilution factor. Temperature and time were not influential as main factors but interacted with the other factors. Finally, high temperature and duration associated with a medium volume of methylene chloride were better for the extractions. After this optimisation, five-ring and six-ring PAHs were nevertheless not satisfactorily desorbed. Other solvents were therefore tested. Only aromatic ones, and particularly heterocyclic aromatic solvents, managed to desorb the heaviest PAHs. Pyridine, with its both aromatic and its basic character, was the most successful solvent. Desorption was even complete with an addition of 17% of diethylamine into pyridine. So, using MAE, we succeeded in extracting quantitatively, from the spiked refractory diesel soot surface, two-ring to six-ring PAHs, heavy n-alkanes and short nitrated PAHs. However, heavy nitrated PAHs were better extracted with a small addition of acetic acid (1%) into pyridine instead of a basic cosolvent.Show more [+] Less [-]