Group I mGluR5 metabotropic glutamate receptors regulate proliferation of neuronal progenitors in specific forebrain developmental domains
Gandhi, Rina | Luk, Kelvin C. | Rymar, Vladimir V. | Sadikot, Abbas F.
Major classical neurotransmitters including GABA and glutamate play novel morphogenic roles during development of the mammalian CNS. During forebrain neurogenesis, glutamate regulates neuroblast proliferation in different germinal domains using receptor subtype-specific mechanisms. For example, ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptors mediate distinct proliferative effects in ventral or dorsal forebrain germinal domains, and regulate the correct number of neurons that populate the striatum or cerebral cortex. Recent work suggests metabotropic receptors may also mediate glutamate's proliferative effects. Group I mGluR5 receptor subtypes are highly expressed in forebrain germinal zones. Using in vitro and in vivo methods, we demonstrate mGluR5 receptor activation plays an important role in neuroblast proliferation in the ventral telencephalon, and helps determine the complement of striatum projection neurons. mGluR5 receptor-mediated effects on striatal neuronal progenitors are restricted mainly to early cycling populations in the ventricular zone, with little effect on secondary proliferative populations in the subventricular zone. In contrast to proliferative effects in the ventral telencephalon, mGluR5 receptors do not modulate proliferation of dorsal telencephalon-derived cortical neuroblasts. Heterogeneous domain-specific proliferative effects of glutamate-mediated by specific receptor subtypes provide an important developmental mechanism allowing generation of the correct complement of neuronal subtypes that populate the mammalian forebrain.Show more [+] Less [-]