pivotal role of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in the mobilization of N and C from storage material to asparagine in germinating seeds of yellow lupine
Lehmann, T. | Ratajczak, L.
In germinating seeds of legumes, amino acids liberated during mobilization of storage proteins are partially used for synthesis of storage proteins of the developing axis, but some of them are respired. The amino acids are catabolized by both glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and transaminases. Ammonium is reassimilated by glutamine synthetase (GS) and, through the action of asparagine synthetase (AS), is stored in asparagine (Asn). This review presents the ways in which amino acids are converted into Asn and their regulation, mostly in germinating seeds of yellow lupine, where Asn can make up to 30% of dry matter. The energy balance of the synthesis of Asn from glutamate, the most common amino acid in lupine storage proteins, also shows an adaptation of lupine for oxidation of amino acids in early stages of germination. Regulation of the pathway of Asn synthesis is described with regard to the role of GDH and AS, as well as compartmentation of particular metabolites. The regulatory effect of sugar on major links of the pathway (mobilization of storage proteins, induction of genes and activity of GDH and AS) is discussed with respect to recent genetic and molecular studies. Moreover, the effect of glutamate and phytohormones is presented at various stages of Asn biosynthesis.Show more [+] Less [-]