Insights into the heparan sulphate-dependent externalisation of transglutaminase-2 (TG2) in glucose-stimulated proximal-like tubular epithelial cells
Furini, Giulia | Burhan, Izhar | Huang, Linghong | Savoca, Maria Pia | Atobatele, Adeola | Johnson, Tim | Verderio, Elisabetta A.M.
The extracellular matrix crosslinking enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is highly implicated in tissue fibrosis that precedes end-stage kidney failure. TG2 is unconventionally secreted through extracellular vesicles in a way that depends on the heparan sulphate (HS) proteoglycan syndecan-4 (Sdc4), the deletion of which reduces experimental kidney fibrosis as a result of lower extracellular TG2 in the tubule-interstitium. Here we establish a model of TG2 externalisation in NRK-52E tubular epithelial cells subjected to glucose stress. HS-binding TG2 mutants had reduced extracellular TG2 in transfected NRK-52E, suggesting that TG2-externalisation depends on an intact TG2 heparin binding site. Inhibition of N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF) vesicle-fusing ATPase, which was identified in the recently elucidated TG2 kidney membrane-interactome, led to significantly lower TG2-externalisation, thus validating the involvement of membrane fusion in TG2 secretion. As cyclin-G-associated kinase (GAK) had emerged as a further TG2-partner in the fibrotic kidney, we investigated whether glucose-induced TG2-externalisation was accompanied by TG2 phosphorylation in consensus sequences of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK). Glucose stress led to intense TG2 phosphorylation in serine/threonine CDK-target. TG2 phosphorylation by tyrosine kinases was also increased by glucose. Although the precise role of glucose-induced TG2 phosphorylation is unknown, these novel data suggest that phosphorylation may be involved in TG2 membrane-trafficking.Show more [+] Less [-]